Tag Archives: Secretary-General

#RtoPWeekly: 30 January – February 3

UntitledSecretary-General and other top UN officials denounce
discriminatory migration policies

Following the announcement of the recent Executive Order in the United States regarding immigration, United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres released a statement on Tuesday denouncing any policies founded in discrimination based on religion, ethnicity or nationality as both “ineffective” and “against the fundamental principles and values on which our societies are based.” Mr. Guterres also noted that discriminatory migration policies breed fear, anger and the very violence they claim to prevent. Above all, Mr. Guterres expressed his particular concern regarding decisions around the world that have jeopardized the integrity of the international refugee protection regime, preventing refugees from receiving the protections they are in desperate need of and are entitled to under international law.

Secretary-General Guterres, who previously served as the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, has stressed the importance of the pursuit of peace and has repeatedly underscored the primacy of prevention and diplomacy in international peace and security, stating during his first official address as the UN chief that, “peace must be our goal and our guide.”  Speaking with media at UN Headquarters on Wednesday Mr. Guterres specifically addressed the actions of the US prohibiting migration and refugees from specific countries and expressed belief that the measure should be reversed. Recalling the written statement he had made the day prior, Secretary-General Guterres emphasized that the measures put in place by the US administration are not the way to protect the US, or any country, from the threat of terrorism. He went on to firmly state that “these measures should be removed sooner rather than later.”

The Secretary-General’s calls have been also echoed by other officials and experts within the UN. On Wednesday, five independent human rights experts released a joint statement through the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. The UN Special Rapporteurs on migrant rights, racism, human rights and counter-terrorism, torture and freedom of religion jointly expressed their expert opinion that the US policy is discriminatory, a “significant setback for those who are obviously in need of international protection,” and risks violating international humanitarian and human rights law. The current UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Filippo Grandi, also made an impassioned plea for solidarity and compassion for refugees fleeing devastation in Syria, Iraq, Yemen and elsewhere. Mr. Grandi said “The world has to go back to solidarity, has to think again of these people – not with fear, not with suspicion, but with open arms, with an open mind, with an open heart.”

Earlier this week the Mr. Grandi also expressed his deep concern over the uncertainty now faced by thousands of refugees in the process of resettlement in the United States due to the ban. The High Commissioner noted that in the first week of the Executive Order alone, 800 of some of the most vulnerable refugees were turned away from the US after already being cleared to restart their lives in the country. In total, the UNHCR (Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees) estimates that 20,000 refugees could have been resettled over the 120 days prohibited by the Executive Order. Recalling the history of the US as a leader in the protection of refugees, the High Commissioner voiced clearly his hopes that the “US will continue its strong leadership role and its long history of protecting those who are fleeing conflict and persecution.”

The UNHCR released a new infographic this week on Refugee Resettlement facts, focusing on the process within the US and globally. To view the UNHCR’s infographic, please click here.

Catch up on developments in…

CAR
DRC
Gaza/West Bank
Iraq
Libya
Nigeria
South Sudan
Sri Lanka
Sudan/Darfur
Syria
Yemen 
Other

Central African Republic:

President Museveni of Uganda called on all regional leaders participating in the fight against the remainders of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) to better cooperate with regional forces. While noting that the regional forces have reduced the LRA’s capabilities enough that they no longer attack military targets, he also noted that the group’s continued attacks on civilian and soft targets is an embarrassment for the governments unable to protect their citizens. Earlier in the week acting the UN Humanitarian Coordinator for CAR reported that the Ouaka province is at major risk of civilian casualties should conflict spillover from neighboring regions.

Top UN officials have approved an allocation of 6 million USD from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to support responses to new violent emergencies in the CAR. Part of this will allow the UN World Food Programme (WFP) to reach 36,800 people facing food insecurity due to the violence in recent months.


Democratic Republic of Congo:

The UN has stated that human rights abuses rose by over 30 percent in the DRC in 2016, with a documented total of 5,190 human rights violations across the country. The increase is allegedly tied to election-related repression and increased activities of several armed groups.

The representatives of the Guarantors of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the DRC and the region (PSC Framework) held a meeting in Ethiopia, on 27 January, in which they considered efforts to address instability in eastern DRC, including support to the neutralization of armed groups. The representatives also discussed dialogue processes in the DRC and Burundi. However, political parties failed to agree on a new peace deal agreement, which has been in progress since the beginning of the year. The representatives reportedly could not agree on the method of appointing a new Prime Minister and experts worry the likelihood of organizing a nationwide poll by the end of the year will be extremely difficult and costly.


Gaza/West Bank:

The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE), made claims based on an internal report, accusing Israel of “unlawful” and “systematic killings” of Palestinian civilians in Gaza. The assembly called on the 324 parliamentarians from 47 countries to support the possibility of launching a formal investigation by the International Criminal Court (ICC).


Iraq:

Human Rights Watch (HRW) has reported the disappearance and torture of minors by the regional government of Kurdistan. Over 180 boys under the age of 18 are purportedly being held without being charged according to HRW estimates. Furthermore, the government has not informed the children’s families, increasing the probability of being disappeared.

The UN envoy for Iraq, Jan Kubis, said this week that Iraq’s liberation from the Islamic State (ISIL) is soon to come, but fighting and massive challenges will continue. Kubis also stated that Iraq will need substantial and sustainable international support and any scaling-down of engagement will only repeat past mistakes. Kubis also noted his concerns over ISIL’s continued targeting of civilians, adding that they will be at extreme risk when fighting in western sections of Mosul begins. Human Rights Watch also claimed in a report on Thursday that groups within Iraqi military forces known as the Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF) have been involved in the abuse, arbitrary detention, and enforced disappearances of men fleeing Mosul, carrying out secret screenings in unidentified detention centers.


Libya:

Over the weekend, German diplomats reported that the private camps used by human traffickers to hold refugees and migrants are rife with cases of rape, torture and execution. The leaked memo detailed evidence compiled by the German Foreign Ministry of, what they called, “concentration-camp-like” conditions. The report comes days before the beginning of a special European Union (EU) summit of heads of state in Malta on Friday where the European migrant situation is to be discussed. On Wednesday Human Rights Watch (HRW)called on the EU and the heads of state meeting in Malta to put human rights and the protection of migrants from future abuses in Libya. The UN-backed Prime Minister of Libya also said on Wednesday that his government would consider allowing NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) or EU ships to operate in national waters in cooperation with Libyan coastguard operations.

Elsewhere in Libya, forces loyal to Field Marshall Khalifa Haftar, the self-declared Libyan National Army (LNA), continued combat operations in an effort to retake Benghazi. The LNA reported that their forces had suffered heavy casualties, but the civilian impact from the offensive is currently unknown.


Nigeria:

Nigerian police have reported that clashes between mostly Christian Mumuye farmers and mostly Muslim Fulani herdsmen killed six people and resulted in the razing of 80 houses in Taraba state in central Nigeria. The violence began on Friday and continued through the weekend into Tuesday, when Mumuye youth reportedly attacked a Fulani village. Ethno-religious tensions in Taraba state escalated earlier in January when the state’s governor was quoted by media urging Christian farmers to fight back against those he dubbed terrorists.

The situations faced by civilians in the country’s embattled north has become whollyunacceptable, according to local media outlets and humanitarian agencies on the ground such as Médecins Sans Frontieres (MSF). Food and medicine shortages, caused in no small part by corruption in the government-run humanitarian sector, has left camp residents in dire situations, with MSF reporting that in a camp visited in July 66 percent of children were emaciated and 1,200 graves had recently been dug. Residents in one camp protested conditions and claimed that they were able to eat only once a day and that inadequate shelter and medical care had made disease rampant. Security is also a concern with surveys of internally displaced people in the camps, the majority of whom are women and children, found two thirds of camp residents reported that guards are engaging in sexual abuses against the very civilians they were tasked with defending. Of the 1.8 million internally displaced people in Nigeria, many are children. Over 30,000 of these children have been separated from their parents while fleeing the fighting.


South Sudan:

Renewed violence broke-out in the city of Malakal in the upper Nile region this week as rebels and government forces engaged in heavy fighting causing civilians in the area to flee for safety. The UN mission in South Sudan noted great concern over the intensification of violence and called on both parties to cease hostilities, with observers warning of the potential for the breakdown of the security situation into an all-out war. The clashes are a continuation and escalation of sporadic fighting that occurred in Malakal last week.

The expansion of the fighting in Malakal to Wau Shilluk, a town to the north, forced the International Organization for Migration (IOM) to halt humanitarian operations for thousands of displaced persons and evacuate 14 staff to safer locations.

Fighting reported to have broken out between government and rebel soldiers in a town on the southern border with Uganda also forced many civilians to flee into the neighboring state this week.

Following the joint statement released by the UN and African Union (AU) on 29 January, which expressed deep concern regarding the current violence and called for an immediate cessation of hostilities, the Community Empowerment for Progress Organization (CEPO), a leading civil society organization in South Sudan, called on the UN, AU and Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) to move from statements to action in South Sudan. CEPO maintains an active and ongoing mapping of violations of human rights and humanitarian law committed in South Sudan’s ongoing civil war on their website. Exiled rebel leader Riek Machar, currently residing in South Africa, supported the joint calls of the UN, African Union and IGAD to end the conflict, but disagreed with the calls for dialogue until a reinstatement of the ceasefire is reached.

The Enough Project has released a report on corruption in the South Sudanese military and the pursuit of profits and powers as fuel for violence and conflict in the country, entitled “Weapons of Mass Corruption: How corruption in South Sudan’s military undermines the world’s newest country.” The report identifies incidents of fraud and other forms of corruption amongst military officials as being a major obstacle to the assurance of peace and the protection of civilians from violence in the country.


Sri Lanka:

Torture and impunity for such heinous acts continues to be a serious concern in Sri Lanka,according to the UN Special Rapporteur on torture, Juan Mendez. Several organizations have released press statements regarding Mr. Mendez’s report and criticizing the collapse of the system in the country meant to investigate and prosecute torture.


Sudan:

New reports of violence in Darfur have arisen this week, as well as details of an allegedrevenge attack carried out by government forces on the civilians of Nertiti, which resulted in the deaths of nine people at the beginning of January and injured 69 others. UNAMID, the joint UN and African Union mission in Darfur, has been criticized by locals for allegedly failing to intervene in the reported attack despite having a base of operations in the town.

In commemoration of the 12 year anniversary of the “Port Sudan Massacre,” activists from eastern Sudan called on the International Criminal Court (ICC) to investigate the incident from 29 January 2005 that is alleged to have involved the killing approximately of 20 unarmed protesters by government forces.


Syria:

The UN World Food Programme resumed air drops to besieged Deir al-Zor on Tuesday, where roughly 93,500 citizens are believed to still be trapped. Syrian and Russian forces have increased the intensity of their offensive on rebel and Islamic State (ISIL) held portions of the city, with Russian air force bombers reportedly hammering ISIL positions with unguided bombs. Despite this, the siege lines have yet to significantly change as the humanitarian need for the nearly 100,000 trapped civilians grows more desperate as access to clean water has been eliminated.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that a midnight airstrike on Wednesday in the city of Idlib hit offices of the Syrian Red Crescent, injuring several staffers, including the director of the local branch. It is still unclear which forces are responsible for the strike.

On Thursday, the US military reported that 11 civilians were killed in four separate airstrikes by the US-led Coalition in Iraq and Syria between 25 October and 9 December last year. An attack on 7 December near Raqqa, Syria proved the most lethal for civilians as a Coalition airstrike hit a building allegedly containing ISIL combatants, killing seven civilians. The statement claims that the total number of civilians killed since the beginning of the air campaign is 199, but this number drastically conflicts with independent monitoring groups such as Airwars, who have totalled the civilian death toll at 2,358. According to US military data, the Coalition has conducted 17,861 airstrikes since the beginning of the operation, 6,868 of which have struck in Syria.

The UN-orchestrated peace negotiations in Geneva have been delayed until late February according to Russian sources. However, the UN has not yet confirmed this delay. The US and Saudi Arabia are reported to have come to an agreement on cooperating to establish safe zones in Syria, but no further details have yet emerged.


Yemen:

A US raid on alleged al Qaeda allies last Sunday caused an unknown amount of civilian casualties, with conflicting reports. US military officials have said 14 militants were killed and one commando killed with others injured. Medics on scene reported a total of 30 fatalities, including 10 women and three children including, reportedly, the eight-year old daughter of Anwar al-Awlaki, who was targeted and killed by US drones in 2011. On Thursday, the USadmitted to the likelihood civilians, including children, had been killed by their raid, but were silent on the number believed killed. US naval bombardment on positions believed to be held by al-Qaeda continued into Thursday according to Yemeni security officials.

UN experts have warned that airstrikes carried out by the Saudi-led coalition in Yemen may amount to war crimes. The expert panel reviewed 10 attacks between March and October 2016 that are believed to have killed at least 292 civilians. The panel found that in all cases the Saudi-led forces did not meet the minimum standards of proportionality and precautions for attack found in international law. The experts said that despite their inability to travel to Yemen that they had achieved the highest achievable standard of proof and were near certain of their findings. The panel also expressed concern over actions of the Houthi rebels that may also amount to war crimes.

On Monday, rockets reportedly fired by Houthi rebels into Saudi Arabia on Mondaydamaged a UN building. In condemning the attack the on the De-escalation and Coordination Committee building UN Special Envoy for Yemen Ismail Ould Cheikh Ahmed noted that the building attacked was supposed to host the committee that will oversee the cessation of hostilities and report on violations.

Medecins sans Frontieres (MSF) released a report on the healthcare situation in Yemen this week. The report, entitled “Yemen: Healthcare Under Siege in Taiz,” focuses on the events occurring in the embattled city, but MSF officials say the situation in Taiz is representative of Yemen as a whole. MSF reported that both sides of the conflict have regularly demonstrated a lack of respect for the protection of civilians and healthcare workers and facilities. The UN also stated that Yemen is exposed to the risk of widespread famine and food shortages once the city’s limited stores of stable foods are depleted, likely within the next 3 months. Torture, murder and abuse of migrants by traffickers and kidnappers in Yemen as also beenreported.


What else is new?

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has published a new report on the implementation of the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention). In 2016, ICRC surveyed capacity for the protection of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in 25 African states and identified how states could best meet their responsibilities towards displaced persons. The findings are summarized in the new report, “Translating the Kampala Convention into Practice: a stocktaking exercise,” which is available here for free PDF download or for hard-copy purchase.

ICRtoP member the Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation (AIPR) is co-sponsoring a panel discussion on the relationship between legal accountability and the prevention of atrocity crimes on Thursday 9th February. The event is entitled “Accountability and Prevention of Mass Atrocities: International Criminal Justice as a Tool for Prevention” and will be hosted at the New York City Bar Association. For more information on this event or to register your attendance, please click here.

The Yale MacMillan Center will also be hosting an event from 16-17 February, entitled “Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect.” Both days of programing will be held at Yale University in New Haven, CT. For more information please click here.

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Filed under African Union, Burma, CARcrisis, DRC, Human Rights, ICRtoP Members, Libya, Myanmar, Nigeria, Peacekeeping, Prevention, RtoP, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, UN, Weekly Round-Up, Yemen

#RtoPWeekly: 16 – 20 January 2017

Untitled

West African military force enters the Gambia in support of new president

africanapc.jpg

On Thursday, Senegalese troops crossed the Gambian border as part of a West African regional initiative to ensure a transition of power from longtime ruler, Yahya Jammeh, to the democratically-elected president, Adama Barrow, who was inaugurated at the Gambian embassy in Senegal earlier that day. Following the elections in December 2016, then-President Jammeh, who seized power of the country in a 1994 coup, originally accepted Mr. Barrow’s win, but later reversed his decision and has refused to leave office past the constitutionally-mandated date this week, citing irregularities and errors within the election process.

Thousands of civilians and tourists have already fled  the Gambia to neighboring countries in anticipation of the possible violence that could ensue if Jammeh does not relinquish power. At least 26,000 people have sought refuge in Senegal alone, according to the UN refugee agency (UNHCR).

On Tuesday, the political crisis in the country worsened as then-President Jammeh declared a state of emergency and held a parliamentary vote, which extended his time in the presidency by 90 days. He claimed that these steps would allow the country’s Supreme Court to consider the legal challenge he has brought against the election results and prevent a vacuum of power during the proceedings.

After President Barrow’s inauguration, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution calling on all parties to accept the December election results and extending full support to the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in the regional initiative to ensure a peaceful transfer of power to Barrow. However, the resolution also underscored that all political methods should be exhausted before using military tools.

By Thursday evening, the West African regional forces had halted operations in the Gambia in order to allow leaders for the region to make a final attempt to use political methods to convince Jammeh to step down. However, operations will reportedly resume on Friday at 12:00pm local time if Jammeh continues to refuse to leave office.

Source for above photo of Senegalese soldiers moving toward the Gambian border on 19 January 2017: Sylvain Cherkaoui/AP via NPR


Catch up on developments in…

Burma/Myanmar
Burundi
CAR
DRC
Gaza/West Bank
Iraq
Libya
Mali
Nigeria
South Sudan
Syria
Yemen


Burma/Myanmar:

Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Fortify Rights issued a joint report on Monday claiming that there has been state involvements in the disappearances of two Baptist Christian leaders from the Kachin ethnic group from Shan State after the men were called to a military base following their assistance to journalists reporting on damage purportedly done to a church by the Burmese military. HRW and Fortify Rights have called upon the government to provide information on the two missing men and to additionally allow Yanghee Lee, the UN Special Rapporteur on human rights in Burma, and other human rights monitors access to the region that has thus far been denied.

In a separate report last Friday, Fortify Rights called upon Permanent UN Security Council member China to do more to protect ethnic Kachin refugees fleeing violence in Burma after an alleged incident of Chinese state security forcing approximately 4,000 refugees back across the border on 11 January. China has denied this report and noted their provision of food and medicine as part of humanitarian initiatives.

Following the rise in violence within Burma in recent months, Malaysia urged the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) on Thursday to pressure Burma to address the issue and British politicians have urged Secretary of Foreign Affairs Boris Johnson to press the issue on his visit to the country on Friday.

Eight other groups who signed the nationwide ceasefire agreement with the government in October 2015 and formed the combined Peace Process Steering Team, requested a meeting with State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and army chief Senior General Min Aung Hlaing last week to seek solutions to ongoing violence in Kachin and Shan states.


Burundi:

The Burundian government has ordered the withdrawal of the over 5,400 troops it contributed to the African Union (AU) stabilization mission in Somalia (AMISOM). This withdrawal is a result of the months-long withholding of payments to Burundi for its AMISOM contributions due to sanctions levied against President Nkurunziza’s current government by the European Union (EU), AMISOM’s largest financial backer.

Last Friday, Burundian national police acknowledged an increase in reports of kidnapping since the beginning of the political crisis in the country in 2015. This supports earlier findings by a UN independent investigation that uncovered multiple disappearances of opposition members, civil society advocates, and demonstrators following arbitrary arrests.

On Thursday, Human Rights Watch (HRW) alleged that members of the Burundian ruling party’s youth league have beaten, tortured, and killed scores of individuals across the country in the months since the beginning of the turmoil caused by President Nkurunziza’s announcement of a third term. HRW claims that the youth league has mobilized to suppress dissent against the president and his plans for a third term in violation of the Arusha Accords. The report calls on the UN Security Council to use targeted sanctions against individuals in Burundi responsible for human rights violations and urges a full investigation by the UN and, if warranted, the International Criminal Court.


Central African Republic:

The 28,000 residents of a makeshift camp outside the airport of the Central African Republic’s capital, Bangui, are being moved out by the government citing concerns for aviation safety. However, many of the civilians still fear for their safety if forced to return to their home villages from which they fled during the sectarian violence that began in 2013. President Faustin-Archange Toudéra said last Thursday that over 70,000 civilians are believed to have been displaced since the beginning of renewed fighting in September, many of whom have been displaced several times.

The United Nations announced last weekend that attacks against humanitarian aid workers in the CAR rose to 330 in 2016.


Democratic Republic of Congo:

The deal reached on New Year’s Eve to allow for a peaceful solution to the political and constitutional crises in the DRC is being celebrated as a victory for diplomats and civil society. However, the deal has not halted violent ethnic clashes in country. On Monday, a UN official reported that ethnic clashes between Bantu and Pygmy communities the week prior had killed 24. UN reports noted the particularly disturbing trend of targeting women with 19 of the 24 victims being female. These casualties are part of a larger period of violence over the last six months that has included 158 deaths, 205 injuries, and 50 acts of sexual violence against women.


Gaza/West Bank:

During his first address to the UN Security Council in the new year UN Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process, Nickolay Mlandenov, stated to the Council that calls for Israel to annex the West Bank, in part or as a whole, is destructive to the two-state long term peace process. A bill put forward in the Knesset to annex a settlement in the West Bank will be debated on Sunday. Mr. Mlandenov called on all actors to avoid unilateral actions that may threaten the two-state solution and also noted with concern increasing tensions in the Gaza Strip and Hamas’ treatment of peaceful protestors against the power shortages and restrictions. Last week, one of the largest protests in a decade saw about 10,000 people march through the streets while security forces fired weapons to disperse the crowd.

Clashes this week between civilians and Israeli security forces have left a 17-year-old Palestinian dead after being identified as the “main instigator” and shot by Israeli forces.


Iraq:

The battle for Mosul, Iraq’s second largest city, has shifted favorably for the Iraqi and coalition forces with their successful capture of most of the eastern portion of the city announced on Wednesday. However, the western portion of the city, across the Tigris River,  remains uncaptured and the narrow streets and dense neighborhoods promise intense and violent fighting, posing extreme danger to the 750,000 civilians the UN estimates remain in that area. Evacuation may be hampered by both fighting and the destruction of five bridges by US-led airstrikes as part of Operation Inherent Resolve that has left even the approaching Iraqi forces searching for makeshift alternatives for crossing. The UN has reported that more than 1,500 people have been evacuated from Mosul to hospitals in a neighboring city since the beginning of the operation in October.

The pressure of the advancing Iraqi forces has led to an evolution in the Islamic State’s (ISIL) battle tactics, with local media reporting the terror organization has begun adapting consumer model drones to drop grenades on small ground targets. The Iraqi CTS (Counter-Terrorism Services) have also seized and taken control of several barrels of chemical mixtures from the labs at the University of Mosul that had allegedly been used by ISIL to produce rudimentary chemical weapons.

The brutality of the violence in Mosul is hinted at by a media report released on Wednesday that includes Iraqi forces boasting to journalist on video about the revenge killing of a surrendered ISIL fighter. The soldiers claimed they executed the man to avenge their fallen compatriots.


Libya:

The UN-brokered Libya dialogue, which is intended to bring about successful unity of the country’s two rival governments, was delayed for the second time in a week on Wednesday as political figures in Libya disputed the makeup of the dialogue team. The meeting is now scheduled to begin on Sunday.

The growing body of reports of abuse of seafaring migrants by the Libyan coastguard now includes an incident in August that involved the firing of multiple bullets into a humanitarian aid ship operated by Médecins Sans Frontières. A report by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights has previously found that migrants have been imprisoned, robbed, raped, and subjected to forced labor after life-threatening interceptions by Libyan coastguard vessels. One account from a migrant stated the coast guard opened fire randomly on a boat of migrants killing at least three.


Mali:

A Human Rights Watch (HRW) report released on Wednesday stated that the Malian government is failing to protect civilians in the northern and central parts of the country. The report detailed attacks on villages and peacekeepers with the UN mission in Mali (MINUSMA), noting that despite the 2015 peace accord, the human rights climate worsened in Mali through 2016 as signatories failed to execute many of the deal’s provisions, including disarmament.

UN Secretary-General Guterres, noting the stagnated adoption of the 2015 accord, urged the UN Security Council on Monday to consider imposing sanctions on those obstructing the deal’s implementation. The UN Secretary-General also called on all parties to resume negotiation.


Nigeria:

On Thursday, Nigeria released details of an airstrike that reportedly accidentally targeted a humanitarian aid camp on Tuesday. The airstrike, which was operating as part of Nigeria’s ongoing counterinsurgency effort against terrorist organizations in the region, reportedly dropped multiple bombs on the camp, killing at least 70 people, including six aid workers. In addition to the deaths and injuries, aid organizations are concerned that the incident may cause a lapse in the humanitarian aid infrastructure in the area. The Nigerian military is set to launch a formal inquiry that will release findings by early February, but top commanders have already called the incident a mistake, directing blame to the “fog of war.”


South Sudan:

On Monday, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and the UN mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) released a human rights report detailing the records of human rights abuses documented by UNMISS during the violence in Juba in July 2016. UNMISS recorded 217 incidents of sexual violence against women and girls by both factions during that period. The report also detailed the targeting of civilians sheltering in UN camps, including multiple acts of sexual violence against women and girls, as well as findings that the South Sudanese military used language tests to identify members of different tribes during house-to-house searches in July, at times executing civilians on the spot.


Syria:

Russia has invited officials from the in incoming US administration to the talks between Syrian government and opposition representatives in Kazakhstan next week. On Thursday, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad told media that he is hopeful the peace talks will lead to local reconciliation with rebel forces. Fighting continues in several areas in the country and has intensified in some, such as in Deir al-Zor, where the UN World Food Program has announced that it will be forced to suspend its airdrop deliveries of food.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported on Thursday that the Islamic State (ISIL) had beheaded four and shot eight in Palmyra. The monitor added that the victims were made up of captured soldiers, rebels, teachers, and state employees.

The monitoring group has also reported continued infighting amongst rebel factions after the fighters from Jabhat Fateh al-Sham, formerly the al-Qaeda-linked al Nusra Front, attacked checkpoints and positions of the Islamist Ahrar al-Sham rebel group. Jabhat Fateh al-Sham claimed responsibility on Wednesday for a car-bombing in Damascus last week that killed seven.


Yemen:

The UN envoy on Yemen, Ismail Ould Cheikh Ahmed, met with President Abrabbuh Mansour Hadi on Monday to attempt to persuade the government to agree to a new cessation of hostilities and the resumption of peace talks. The current halt in negotiations is a result of the President’s rejection of an earlier proposal that would have reduced his power and moved towards a transitional government and new elections. The envoy previously met with senior officials of Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Qatar over the past week and is set to travel to Sana’a in the next few days to meet with Houthi leaders to deliver the same message. The envoy is also intended to report to the UN Security Council regarding the situation in Yemen later this month.

On Thursday, the internationally-recognized government spoke well of elements of a new peace plan presented by the UN envoy, which would begin with a cessation of hostilities and lead to the formation of a unity government.

Fighting between Houthi and government forces in Shabwa province on Monday reportedly killed 34 people and wounded 16 others. Six civilians were also killed by a Houthi-fired rocket during fighting around Taiz. On Tuesday it the UN reported that the death toll in the Yemeni conflict has broken 10,000. The report also claimed that local human rights monitors have recorded 11,332 civilian casualties, including 4,125 deaths in Yemen through October 2016. Furthermore, 10 million people in Yemen are in urgent humanitarian need.

 

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#R2PWeekly: 24 – 28 October 2016

Rtop weekly

Informal UNGA meeting calls for emergency session on Syria, urges international community to uphold responsibility to protect civilians

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The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), at the request of over 70 Member States, gathered for an informal meeting on 20 October to discuss the ongoing conflict and deteriorating humanitarian situation in the Syrian Arab Republic. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon opened his remarks at the meeting by noting his grave concern over the UN Security Council’s failure to take timely action to promote peace and security in Syria, allowing regional rivalries to take priority over the needs of the Syrian people. The Secretary-General also noted that several parties involved in the conflict have committed violations of human rights and international law that may amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity.

During the meeting, at least six Member States, including Canada, Botswana, and Switzerland, directly echoed the Secretary-General’s appeal for Syria and the international community to uphold their responsibility to protect populations from genocide, ethnic cleansing, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. The UN Special Envoy for Syria, Mr. Staffan de Mistura, and several Member States noted that while the recent humanitarian pause in Russian and Syrian military action in Aleppo is a step in the right direction, it falls short of the actions necessary to allow for both the creation of evacuation corridors and unimpeded access to deliver humanitarian and medical aid to civilians.

Many Member States argued that only a political solution can end the nearly six-year-long conflict and an emergency session of the UNGA should be called in order to implement a peaceful cessation of hostilities and initiate a political transition in Syria. The General Assembly has only convened 10 emergency sessions in the history of the United Nations, the last of which took place in 2009 regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

The conflict has killed nearly 500 civilians, more than a quarter of which were children, and injured an additional 2,000, since the Syrian government, in conjunction with Russia and Iran, began renewed efforts to retake territory from opposition forces last month. On Wednesday alone, a purported Russian or Syrian airstrike killed at least 14 children and seven teachers and injured at least 75 others when it struck a school complex near the city of Idlib. Despite international efforts, including calls for a renewed cessation of hostilities in Aleppo and the issuance of facilitation papers to allow access to UN aid trucks, Russia has announced it is not planning any more humanitarian pauses in the country.

Source for above photo of UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon at the informal meeting of the seventy-first session of the General Assembly on the situation in Syria: UN Photo/Amanda Voisard


Catch up on developments in…

Burma/Myanmar
Burundi
CAR
Cote d’Ivoire
DRC
Gaza/West Bank
Iraq
Libya
Kenya
Mali
Nigeria
South Sudan
Sudan/Darfur
Syria
Yemen
Other


Burma/Myanmar:

On 22 October, Burmese armed forces demanded that the United Wa State Army (UWSA) withdraw its forces from any areas under the administration of the National Democratic Alliance Army (NDAA) in and around the town of Mongla in eastern Shan State. Residents have already begun to flee the area in light of the Army’s 24 October ultimatum date having passed.

On 24 October, the repatriation of refugees from Thailand to Burma began with the voluntary return of 68 people from camps along the Thai-Burma border. For the past 30 years, Thailand has hosted over 100,000 refugees from Burma who fled their homes to escape the civil war in the country, with many of the refugees belonging to the Karen, Mon and Shan minority ethnic groups. The UNHCR has hailed the start of repatriation as a milestone in one of the world’s most protracted displacement situations.

The following day, the UN called for an investigation as allegations continue to be brought forward that state security forces, operating in Rakhine State, are continuing in a campaign of violence and repression against the stateless Rohingya minority. Up to 15,000 people have been displaced by the actions of security forces in the wake of the 9 October attack on border outposts in the region. Burmese officials have stated that they have killed 30 “attackers”, while rights groups claim that the majority of the dead have been civilians, who are also subjected to the burning of villages and arbitrary arrests. Human Rights Watch has called upon the Burmese government to allow aid to reach the region and those displaced, claiming that the government is currently blocking all aid to the area.


Burundi:

On Wednesday, Burundi officially informed UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon of the country’s decision to withdraw from the International Criminal Court (ICC). Some African politicians welcomed the Burundian withdrawal from the ICC, including the president of Sudan who encouraged other African countries to do the same. Just days later, South Africaannounced its decision to follow the example set by Burundi. The ICC has asked Burundi and South Africa to reconsider their withdrawals from the institution and has urged them to work together with the Court to end impunity and protect human rights. Meanwhile, on Tuesday, Botswana released a statement  reaffirming its support for the ICC and expressing “regret” over South Africa’s decision to withdraw. However, Gambia also announced its intended withdrawal from the Court on Wednesday.

On Monday, it was discovered that the Interior Ministry of Burundi issued an order to withdraw permits and ban activities of several non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the country after accusing the organizations of taking sides and working to evoke hostility towards the government. The general secretary of FOCODE, one of the recently banned NGOs, said that the ban is a “threat to civil freedom and a threat to freedom of association”.

Several NGOs, including ICRtoP member Human Rights Watch, published an open letter on Wednesday to the Ambassadors and Permanent Representatives of Member States of the United Nations in Geneva and New York regarding the situation in Burundi. The letter encourages a suspension of Burundi from the UN Human Rights Council if it fails to cooperate with the UN Commission of Inquiry in the country, as allegations of severe violations of human rights need to be investigated and the government has refused to cooperate with the UN system.


Central African Republic:

On Monday, hundreds of people gathered to protest against MINUSCA, the UN mission in the country, accusing the mission of not doing enough to protect civilians. The protesters alsoclaimed that MINUSCA is supporting the rebels. People threw stones and shouted at the troops who, according to a witness, responded with warning shots. Eventually armed groups and peacekeepers exchanged fire, resulting in at least three dead protesters and several injured, including four peacekeepers. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the violence the following day and welcomed action taken by the government to ensure accountability for the perpetrators.


Cote d’Ivoire:

ICRtoP member Human Rights Watch (HRW) has called for the government of Côte d’Ivoire to respect the rights of those opposed to the newly drafted constitution, stating that civilians have the right to express dissenting opinions on the document. This follows actions by security forces to disperse protests and gatherings against the constitution, including the detainment of dissenters and opposition leaders; however, some protests occurred without incident.


Democratic Republic of Congo:

The World Food Programme has released an Emergency Dashboard for October 2016, indicating that there are approximately 1.7 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and 429,613 refugees currently within the Democratic Republic of Congo.


Gaza/West Bank:

The European Commission has released a Fact Sheet for October 2016, which indicates that there are approximately 1.6 million people in need of humanitarian assistance in Gaza, East Jerusalem, and parts of Area C; of those in need, approximately 60,000 people were displaced from the 2014 Gaza Strip conflict.


Iraq:

Islamic State (ISIL) allegedly executed 284 men and boys on Thursday and Friday of last week in the city of Mosul. The deceased were allegedly from the approximately 550 families that ISIL forcibly moved from villages into Mosul to be used as human shields. The extremist group then used a bulldozer to bury the bodies in a mass grave near Mosul’s defunct College of Agriculture.

Nearly 1,000 civilians living near the city of Mosul have sought medical treatment citing breathing problems linked to toxic gases from a sulphur plant that ISIL allegedly set on fire. No deaths have been reported so far as a result of the incident. The fire is thought to be aimed at deterring advancing Iraqi and US-led coalition forces.

New evidence has emerged that ISIL killed 50 former police officers on Sunday who were being held captive in a building in Mosul. Bodies of an additional 70 civilians were found in their homes in a village just outside the city, while another 15 civilians were killed and thrown into a river. The perpetration of these latest atrocities is reportedly an attempt to continue the spread of terror as Iraqi and US-led coalition forces begin to converge on the city.

Hundreds of ISIL fighters, deemed “suicide squads”, have arrived in Mosul from their Syrian stronghold in Raqqa to defend the city against the Iraqi army and US-led coalition. The foreign fighters have been seen wearing explosive belts, arming bridges with bombs, and are said to have prepared several vehicles with suicide bombs.

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has provided over 1,000 reproductive health consultations to women fleeing Mosul since the Iraqi and US-led coalition offensive began earlier this month. UNFPA has postured 25 reproductive health teams and 20 maternal health facilities as part of its humanitarian response in Mosul.

More than 1,000 civilians living in the Tob Zawa village near the city of Mosul have been safelymoved by Iraqi special forces to nearby refugee camps this week. At least 9,000 people have been displaced since the operation began on 17 October.


Kenya:

On 24 October, members of the extremist group, al Shabaab, attacked a hotel located in the town of Mandera in northeast Kenya, killing 12 people.

ICRtoP member Human Rights Watch (HRW) has called for a probe into police killings in Kenya as about 1,200 deaths have been blamed on security forces in the last five years. The organization also reported that around 34 people have been forcibly disappeared by security forces in counter-terrorism operations in the last two years, noting that, so far, only one police officer has been held accountable.


Libya:

Late last week, Italian Coast Guard forces reported seeing a speedboat labelled “Libyan Coast Guard” attack a boat overcrowded with refugees off the coast of Libya, using sticks as weapons. At least four refugees fell into the water and drowned and up to 25 people are missing. The European Union has previously initiated a plan to train Libyan forces to manage their own sea rescue operations. Following the report on this incident, a German aid group has urged the EU to rethink the decision in order to protect refugees.


Mali:

Germany has agreed to assist the UN peacekeeping mission in Mali (MINUSMA) with military helicopters if no other country decides to help, as the Netherlands and Indonesia are withdrawing their military transportation support. The German Foreign Ministry spokesman said that the reason for their pledge is their conviction on the importance of stabilizing Mali.


Nigeria:

On 23 October, the Nigerian military confirmed that at least 83 Nigerian soldiers are missing following an attack by Boko Haram in the northeastern part of the country. Superior firepower by the extremist group forced many of the soldiers to flee on foot into the Niger River where many are feared to have drowned.

This week, the Nigerian government announced that on 31 October it will meet with community leaders from the Niger Delta region as well as representatives of several of the armed groups fighting in the area in the hopes of ending the fighting in the region. However, on 25 October, the same day as the aforementioned announcement, the Niger Delta Avengers, one of such armed groups in the Niger River Delta, announced that they had attacked an oil pipeline in the region.


South Sudan:

The head of the UN mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) has announced that she will step down at the end of November after serving as the UN Special Representative to South Sudan for two years. On Monday, she said that the road ahead for South Sudan would be difficult, but she is hopeful that peace will come to the war-torn country.

Amnesty International released a report on Monday, examining the serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law carried out by government forces during the breakout of violence in Juba in July. The report is based on over 90 interviews conducted over three months following the re-ignition of the conflict in the country. The witnesses describe ethnic-based killings, rapes, and abuse.

According to the UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), at least 67 aid workers have been killed since the conflict in South Sudan broke out in 2013. OCHA also reported that more than 640 incidents where humanitarian aid access was blocked were reported in the first nine months of this year. The humanitarian agency condemned the violence and called for a quick response to hold the guilty accountable for their actions.

Over the last several weeks, there has been an increase of ethnic hate speech and threats of violence, mutilation, and murder in South Sudan. On Wednesday, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights issued a warning that if these incitements of violence are allowed to continue there’s a high risk of mass atrocities erupting in the country. He urged the community and top political leaders in the country to take decisive action to ensure no horrendous crimes will be committed.

On Wednesday, the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) announced in a statement the release of about 145 child soldiers who had been recruited by the Cobra Faction and the SPLA-IO, two armed rebel groups fighting the South Sudanese government. In the statement, UNICEF also noted that approximately 16,000 children are still being held as soldiers in armed groups and called on the parties to cease the recruiting of children to their armies.


Sudan/Darfur:

Sudan Call, the opposition to Sudan’s ruling National Congress Party (NCP), has threatenedto initiate a large-scale protest in the coming year with the goal of overthrowing the existing government. The threat follows the opposition’s boycott of a National Dialogue agreement amongst the ruling party and its allies that set the groundwork for a future constitution of Sudan. The two parties have been unable to reach an agreement leading to a humanitarian truce and the implementation of requisite confidence building measures.


Syria:

Security developments
A three-day “humanitarian” ceasefire between regime and rebel forces has broken down as clashes in Aleppo continued over the weekend. The unilateral agreement was announced by the Syrian government and Russia to allow for both residents and rebels to leave the city. However, the agreement did not last long enough for aid agencies to obtain the requisite security agreements necessary to evacuate injured civilians and rebels refused to give up their positions.

The United Kingdom’s Minister of Defense announced on Tuesday that an additional 20 security personnel will be deployed to Syria in an effort to reboot a program to train moderate opposition forces for an upcoming offensive to retake territory from the Islamic State (ISIL). It is suspected that an operation to retake the city of Raqqa will become the focus pending the outcome of the operation to retake Mosul in Iraq.

US-led coalition strikes in Syria have killed at least 300 civilians since 2014 according to a new report released by Amnesty International on Tuesday. The organization publicly investigated available information such as news reports, satellite imagery, and photo and video evidence related to 11 aerial attacks that have been carried out since September 2014. The US State Department has not yet responded to Amnesty’s inquiry regarding the report.

An airstrike on a school complex in Aleppo killed at least 35 civilians, including 22 children and 6 teachers, on Wednesday. The attack was a part of a series of strikes conducted by either Russian or Syrian war planes in the city of Idlib. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) expressed outrage over the attack, noting that, if deliberate, the attack should be treated as a war crime.

The humanitarian situation
The UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinatorstated this week that at least 400 civilians, including many children, have been killed in Aleppo in the last month. The statement, delivered to the UN Security Council at a briefing on the crisis in Syria, noted that the UN was unable to deliver humanitarian assistance and coordinate civilian evacuations due to objections from two armed opposition groups.

Political developments
The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons-UN joint investigative mechanism, also called the Jim, released a report on Friday confirming that the Syrian government is responsible for an attack in Idlib province in March 2015, which involved the use of chemical weapons. The attack allegedly used a device dropped from a high altitude which released a deadly agent into the air, likely chlorine. Russia has thus far thwarted attempts in the Security Council by the US, France, and the UK to impose sanctions on Syria for the use of chemical weapons in the ongoing crisis.


Yemen:

The Saudi-led coalition released a statement last week, which said that the Houthi rebels repeatedly violated the 72-hour ceasefire launched at midnight the day before. The truce was supposed to last for three days, but, according to the statement, it had already been breached more than 40 times by the rebels, leading the Saudi-led coalition to respond by launching missiles on Yemen. Attacks from both sides killed at least 11 people on the first day of the truce, including at least three civilians. A government source said he was grateful for the efforts of Ismail Ould Cheikh Ahmed, the UN envoy, as he tried to broker peace between the rebels and the government, but he also confirmed that the attempt was unsuccessful as the rebels violated the truce several times. On Saturday, the UN envoy urged all parties to extend the truce, but the call was not heeded; the ceasefire ended after 72 hours without renewal.

On Tuesday, the UN special envoy to Yemen handed an outline for a peace plan to the Houthi rebels, who currently hold control in the capital on the country. According to a politician affiliated with the rebels, the plan included relieving the president of his duties and instead implementing a transitional period of one or two years before introducing presidential elections. According to a copy of the proposal seen by media, the information given by the politician is accurate as the main idea of the proposal seems to be the establishing of a new government containing less divisive people. The day after the delivery of the peace plan the Yemeni army attacked areas held by the rebels.

The UN food relief agency (WFP) has expressed concerns regarding the deteriorating situation in Yemen as food security is running low and child malnutrition is rising. The regional director of the WFP said that hunger is increasing and “people have exhausted all their survival strategies”. Women and children are the most vulnerable, especially as some areas of the country are difficult to reach for food distribution.

The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) released a Humanitarian Snapshot this week, showing the impact of the conflict in Yemen. The Snapshot reveals a devastating toll on the population as food insecurity is worsening, health facilities are reaching their limits, and those engaged in the conflict continually breach the rules of international law when it comes to the protection of civilians.


What else is new?

The Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect (APR2P) has published the latest issue of its premier journal on RtoP, Global Responsibility to Protect. This issue, Volume 8, Issue 4, features articles discussing challenges and recommendations for the next UN Secretary-General, the connections between RtoP, refugees, and IDPs, and other important topics on the norm. To read the latest issue please click here.

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#R2PWeekly: 12 – 16 September 2016

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ICRtoP Releases Summary and Educational Tools on
2016 UNGA Dialogue on RtoP

On 6 September 2016, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) held its eighth annual informal, interactive dialogue on the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP, R2P) at the United Nations headquarters in New York. The dialogue followed the August release of the UN Secretary-General’s (UNSG) eighth, and final, report on RtoP entitled, “Mobilizing collective action: The next decade and the responsibility to protect.”

68 Member States and one regional organization delivered statements on behalf of 95 governments. The International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect, represented by Mr. Gus Miclat of the Initiatives for International Dialogue, as well as three ICRtoP members –The Global Centre for R2PThe Asia-Pacific Centre for R2P, and The Canadian Centre for R2P – delivered interventions. Over the course of the dialogue, Member States reaffirmed their commitment to RtoP and supported the Secretary-General’s vision for mobilizing collective action. In doing so, Member States supported a variety of initiatives to overcome current barriers to implementation. Echoing past dialogues, but with increased support, 37 Member States as well as the European Union (EU), collectively representing 59 States, spoke of the need for veto restraint. This concern manifested itself through support of either/both of the complimentary initiatives led by the governments of France and Mexico, and the Accountability, Coherence and Transparency Group (ACT). Many States as well as the Group of Friends of RtoP (GoF) and EU also proposed ways in which the UNGA could support RtoP in the coming decade, calling for a new UNGA resolution on RtoP and/or the formalization of the dialogue on the UNGA agenda. Emphasizing the title of the report, 11 Member States and the GoF called for the next UNSG to prioritize RtoP, with many others highlighting the need to further mainstream the norm. Finally, many Member States made note of the changing landscape of the past-decade, citing the rise of non-state actors in the commission of mass atrocity crimes as well as the continued disregard for international law, with many calling for ensuring accountability for perpetrators and more support for the International Criminal Court.

The ICRtoP has produced a number of educational materials about the UNSG report and UNGA dialogue, including a summary of both the 2016 report and dialogue, an infographic highlighting the major themes raised in the meeting, and an updated page on the UN and RtoP, which includes information on all UNGA dialogues.

View the ICRtoP’s summary of the UNSG report here.
View the ICRtoP’s summary of the UNGA dialogue here.
View the ICRtoP’s infographic highlighting key themes here.
View the ICRtoP’s UN and RtoP page here.
To read interventions delivered at the UNGA dialogue, visit here.


Catch up on developments in…

Burma/Myanmar
Burundi
DRC
Gaza/West Bank
Iraq 
Libya
Mali
South Sudan
Sudan/Darfur
Syria
Yemen
Other


Burma/Myanmar:

Aung San Suu Kyi made visits to leaders of the United Kingdom and United States this week, including a meeting with British Prime Minister, Theresa May on Tuesday, and US President, Barack Obama, on Wednesday. In her meeting with PM May, the two discussed British support for the people of Burma, with the Prime Minister expressing concern of the commission of human rights abuses by Myanmar’s military. After her meeting with President Obama, which marked her first visit to the country since her party’s electoral victory, the US President announced that he is prepared to lift American sanctions on Burma due to the further democratization of the country in past months. However, a senior US official said that some sanctions would remain in place, such as an arms ban, “in order to ensure that the military remains a partner in the democratic transition.” Human rights organizations haveurged the US to maintain such military sanctions until the military and its allies respect human rights and democratic norms.


Burundi:

It was reported on Thursday that a former army officer and his family were killed as a result of a grenade attack, with local residents stating that the attack may have resulted from the former officer’s links to the government.


Democratic Republic of Congo:

Late last week, the DRC released eight pro-democracy activists and 170 other prisoners, some of which were found guilty of “insurrection, acts of war and political offences,” according to the ministerial release order signed by the country’s justice minister. The government’s release of the prisoners was in response to opposition parties’ demands as a pre-condition for their participation in the dialogue taking place in the capital. However, on Monday, opposition parties walked out of the talks after the government proposed that local elections should occur before presidential elections, claiming that their stance on the order in which elections will be held is non-negotiable. A government spokesman said that such an act is only a negotiating tactic and that the dialogue is not over.

The UN mission in the DRC, MONUSCO, reportedly rescued another 268 people from a national forest in the country’s northeast. Riek Machar, South Sudan’s main opposition leader fled South Sudan into the DRC after fierce fighting in Juba and over 750 of his supporters have followed him across the border. Officials are concerned over the stability of the region with the arrival of Machar and his supporters as the DRC government currently has limited control over its restive border regions and heavily depends on MONUSCO for security assistance. South Sudan has accused MONUSCO of supporting Machar in the conflict and have condemned the UN mission’s actions.


Gaza/West Bank:
 

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu posted a video late last week that claims Palestinians want to “ethnically cleanse” the West Bank of Jews, and that Jews would be banned from living in a future Palestinian state. Palestinians have denied these claims and US officials have condemned the Prime Minister’s accusations. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon also expressed that he was disturbed by the PM’s statement that opposition to the Israeli settlements is “tantamount to ethnic cleansing.”

On Thursday, the Israeli air force carried out strikes on three Hamas locations within the Gaza Strip after a rocket was fired into Israel on Wednesday. Later that day, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon referenced the attacks, warning that leaders on both sides of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict “do not serve the cause of peace.”


Iraq:

As the Iraqi military prepares for an offensive on Mosul, ISIL’s defacto capital in the country, the US has announced it will provide up to $181 million in humanitarian aid to assist with the expected consequences of the military action. The United Nations anticipates that up to one million people will flee their homes as a result of the offensive, which is expected to launch as soon as next month.

The US also announced that Iraqi forces, with the support of the US-led Coalition, have retaken almost half of the land previously held by ISIL.


Libya:

The British Foreign Affairs Committee released its report on Wednesday following an investigation into the 2011 NATO intervention in Libya.The report found that the launch of the military intervention was based on “inaccurate intelligence” and “erroneous assumptions.” Furthermore, the report asserts that the British government, under then-Prime Minister David Cameron, “failed to identify that the threat to civilians was overstated and that the rebels included a significant Islamist element,” which contributed to the political and economic collapse, inter-militia and inter-tribal (warfare), humanitarian and migrant crises, widespread human rights violations and the growth of ISIL in North Africa.”

On Tuesday, Martin Kobler, the UN Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Libya,warned that although political space has opened up in the country, political divisions among the parties to the conflict are worsening. He added, “Today more than ever, strong action is needed to convince Libyan stakeholders to build institutions that are open, participatory and able to address the needs of all of its citizens.”


Mali:

Unidentified gunmen killed three soldiers and injured two others late last week in an ambush near the town of Boni in the Mopti region of central Mali.


South Sudan:

The Sentry released a groundbreaking report following its investigation into the networks led by President Kiir and former Vice President Riek Machar, in which the organization found a link “between systemic corruption and violent conflict, including the mass atrocities committed during the civil war.” The report’s findings indicate that those in power and leading these networks have amassed tremendous wealth as a result of rampant corruption, with officials financially benefiting from the continuation of the war and humanitarian crises that have erupted as a result.

The government of South Sudan has responded to the release of this report by threatening legal action against the organization, with the presidential spokesman stating that there will be steps taken to sue The Sentry. Action has also been taken against national newspaper, the Nation Mirror, allegedly for having published information on the report. The prominent paper has since been shut down, with no indication on how long this will last and causing increased concern for media freedom in the country.

Mercy Corps has stated that, unless humanitarian support is drastically and urgently increased, an estimated 40,000 people will be at risk of dying in Unity State from starvation that has been fuelled in part by the ongoing conflict in the country. In addition to those at risk of death, an estimated 4.8 million are directly impacted by the hunger crisis.

Meanwhile, the UN Security Council held consultations on Wednesday to discuss the status of the Regional Protection Force, with Member States expressing concern over recent statements made by members of the South Sudanese government that went against commitments to the force. The Council met with President Kiir while in South Sudan earlier this month, and agreed to a joint statement that expressed acceptance of the force. Some governments stated at the 14 September UNSC meeting that if this commitment is not upheld then the Council must consider stronger measures, such as an arms embargo. The same day, it was reported that President Kiir stated that the UN was working to support his rivals as UN actors assisted in the transportation of Riek Machar to receive medical care, and thus the organization was “not part of the solution.”

On Thursday, the UN Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan expressed its concern for the state of human rights in the country, including harassment and intimidation of civil society and journalists, and the commission of sexual violence against civilians.


Sudan/Darfur:

Sudanese President Omer al-Bashir is set to visit Shattaya, a locality in which 150 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) have reportedly recently returned to their homes.

The UN refugee agency (UNHCR) has reported 298 new Sudanese arrivals last month in South Sudan, bringing the year’s total to 9,291 so far. Around 90 percent of the arrivals were women and children.


Syria:

On Monday, a nationwide ceasefire brokered by the United States and Russia took effect in Syria at 7.pm. local time. This is the second such attempt by the global powers this year. The ceasefire is an attempt to allow badly needed humanitarian aid to reach previously cut off populations and, if the ceasefire holds, the US and Russia plan to begin coordinating efforts targeting the Islamic State (ISIL) and Jabhat Fateh Al-Sham, formerly called Jabhat al-Nusra, who are not included in the truce. Prior to the ceasefire, neither the Syrian government forces nor any of the rebel groups had formally declared to respect the agreement, but representatives from both sides indicated that they would. However, at the deadline for the cessation of hostilities, the government said it would respect the ceasefire, but maintain the right to defend itself from attack.

Only a few hours before the ceasefire took effect, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad made a public appearance at a mosque in Daraya, a suburb of Damascus which was recently recovered from rebels after a four-year siege. While there, he promised that the government would take the land back from “terrorists” and rebuild Syria.

On Tuesday, the UN Special Envoy for Syria, Staffan de Mistura, lauded the “significant drop in violence” in the 24 hours following the start of the ceasefire. He said, “Sources on the ground, which do matter, including inside Aleppo city, said the situation has dramatically improved with no air strikes.” The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights also reported that it had not received any reports of any combatants or civilians killed by fighting within any of areas the regions where the ceasefire is in effect.

By Wednesday, even with the successful holding of the ceasefire, no humanitarian aid had been delivered to Aleppo due to a lack of security guarantees. The UN attempted to negotiate for the safety of 20 aid trucks and their drivers. Mr. Mistura said, “There is always in these cases attempts to politicize humanitarian aid. So the government has been putting some conditions which I will not elaborate on and the opposition—at the receiving end in eastern Aleppo—have been putting some conditions.” He added that the deliveries would only be made when those conditions were met. By late Wednesday night, the US and Russiaannounced a 48 hour extension of the ceasefire, as UN officials continued to negotiate for the security of the aid convoys. However, within less than 24 hours, US and Russian officials accused their counterparts of violating the ceasefire agreement. Nonetheless, reports of relative calm continued from Aleppo and other areas covered by the truce, while aid convoys remained halted at the Turkish border on Thursday, continuing to await security guarantees.


Yemen:

The UN’s Humanitarian Coordinator for Yemen declared that he “remains deeply disturbed by the unrelenting attacks on civilians and civilian infrastructure” in the country, this statement coming after a Saudi-led coalition strike on a well killed 30 civilians last Saturday. It was said that the attack occurred after the machinery being used by workers drilling for water was mistaken for a rocket launcher. In addition to those civilians being killed by direct fire, photos have shown the horrific impact the war has had on children as 1.5 million are facing malnutrition according to UNICEF.


What else is new?:

Dr. James Waller, Academic Programs Director for the Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation will hold an event on Thursday, 29 September in New York City to promote his newest book, entitled Confronting Evil: Engaging in our Responsibility to Prevent Genocide. The event will take place in room 1302 of the International Affairs Building at Columbia University from 12-2pm. If you would like to attend, please send a short RSVP tojack.mayerhofer@auschwitzinstitute.org to confirm your attendance.

The Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies will be holding a conference entitled, “Assaulting Cultural Heritage: ISIS’s Fight to Destroy Diversity in Iraq and Syria” on 26 September. To learn more about the event, including how to register, click here.

 

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Filed under ICRtoP Members, RtoP, Weekly Round-Up

#R2PWeekly: 20 – 24 June 2016

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Secretary General Appoints New
UN Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect

On 23 June 2016, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced that Ivan Šimonović has been appointed as the new UN Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect. Mr. Šimonović will be the third individual to assume the post, following Dr. Edward Luck and Dr. Jennifer Welsh. He will take up the post on 1 October 2016.

Mr. Šimonović is currently the UN Assistant Secretary-General for Human Rights, a post through which he has shown his dedication to preventing gross and systematic abuses of human rights. In his six-year tenure at the United Nations, Mr. Šimonović has underscored that RtoP is a “human rights friendly” concept, including as a panelist at the 2012 General Assembly Dialogue on RtoP, at which he stated that RtoP is “the idea that people are entitled to be protected from the worst forms of human rights violations, from genocide, crimes against humanity, ethnic cleansing, and war crimes.”

As UN Special Adviser on RtoP, Mr. Šimonović will be responsible for the conceptual, political, and institutional development of RtoP, as well as for building consensus to assist the General Assembly to continue considering the norm. Such a mandate entails, among other duties, engaging with UN actors, Member States, regional and sub-regional organizations, and civil society to implement and mainstream the norm; as well as conceptualizing the UN Secretary-General’s annual reports on RtoP.

The ICRtoP looks forward to working with Mr. Šimonović, as well as the entire Office on the Prevention of Genocide and the Responsibility to Protect, to continue consolidating support for RtoP and advocating for early action to prevent and respond to the threat of atrocity crimes. In this regard, the ICRtoP will continue efforts with the Office to enhance the relationship between civil society and the UN system to strengthen collaboration, cooperation, and information sharing on atrocities prevention and response.

See statement here.

See the UN News announcement here.

Read more about the mandate of the Special Advisers on the Prevention of Genocide and the Responsibility to Protect and the work of the Joint Office.  For more information, see the ICRtoP’s page on the Joint Office.


Catch up on developments in…

Burma/Myanmar
Burundi
Central African Republic
DPRK
DRC
Gaza/West Bank
Iraq
Kenya
Libya
Mali
Nigeria
South Sudan
Sri Lanka
Sudan/Darfur
Syria
Yemen
Other


Burma/Myanmar:

The UN Special Rapporteur on human rights in Myanmar, Yanghee Lee, will make an official visit to the country from 20 June until 1 July. Ms. Lee will monitor the situation of human rights and assess the work of the new government during its first 100-days in office. A report on the visit will be presented to the UN General Assembly in October. On 20 June, following the Special Rapporteur’s meeting with State Counselor Aung San Suu Kyi, the government of Myanmar decided to no longer use the term “Rohingya” or “Bengali” to describe the Muslim community of the Rakhine state. The ethnic term has been a point of contention in the conflict between nationalist Buddhists and Muslims in Myanmar. The terms were also avoided in the Special Rapporteur’s meeting on 22 June with the Arakan State Chief Minister Nyi Pu.

The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, issued a report urging the Burmese government to take concrete action against the systematic violations of human rights of the minority groups in Myanmar. The report, released on 20 June, documented widespread human rights abuses, including denial of healthcare and education, forced labor, restrictions on freedom of movement, and more, that could possibly amount to crimes against humanity. The Rohingya Muslim community was noted to receive the worst treatment. High Commissioner Hussein acknowledged the work of the new democratic government in signing a Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement last year as well as establishing a Central Committee on the Implementation of Peace, Stability, and Development of Rakhine State. However, the Commissioner’s report urged for more concrete steps to be taken by the government to facilitate the transition to peace. The government has criticized the report, stating it is biased.

report by the UN Refugee Agency stated Burmese citizens made up the eighth-largest population of refugees in 2015. More than 451,000 people fled Myanmar last year as a result of ethnic violence between multiple armed groups.

Nearly 1,000 people in the Kachin State protested against the killing of a teen by a Burmese Army soldier on 21 June. The unarmed 19-year-old student was “mistakenly shot” by the soldier during a fight between two soldiers and a group of Kachin University students on the night of 20 June. The events leading up to the shooting are unclear, but they are said involve the soldiers escorting female university students claiming to be harassed by their male peers.


Burundi:

Following their second visit to Burundi last week, the United Nations Independent Investigation on Burundi (UNIIB) called for concrete action to be taken to end the violence in the country. While the number of executions has decreased since last year, the UNIIB noted that mass arrests are still occurring, including the recent detainment of 11 children for defacing pictures of the President. “For Burundi to move away from violence and conflict, it needs a truly inclusive political dialogue that will address the roots of the political crises,” said one expert from the UNIIB.

Burundi is reconsidering its membership to the International Criminal Court (ICC), claiming the ICC did not take into account the principle of complementarity, which provides that the court can only investigate crimes if national courts cannot do so, when conducting preliminary investigations into post-electoral killings in Burundi.


Central African Republic:

The Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Central African Republic, Marie-Therese Keita Bocoum, has urged the Central African Republic’s government to take robust measures to stop violence and ensure the protection for civilians. Ms. Keita Bocoum met with several government representatives and civil society members on her seventh visit to the country and she stressed the need for enhanced security and justice reform, particularly with the establishment of the Special Criminal Court. She also expressed concern over the allegations of sexual abuse within the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) and will address the Human Rights Council about the issue on 28 June. Her final report on the Central African Republic will be submitted in September.

A new wave of violence in the northwest has left 10 people dead and forced thousands to flee. Armed attackers entered the city of Ngaoundaye on 16 June, shooting at residents and torching homes. The attack, carried out by Fulani herdsmen and ex-Seleka militiamen, is the worst bout of violence in the country since the political election in February. MINUSCA has strengthened security measures in response to the attacks and reaffirmed its mission to promote peace and security in the CAR.

A driver for Medecins sans Frontieres (MSF) was shot and killed while driving to transport medicine and fuel from Bangui to Bangassou on 17 June. The Humanitarian Coordinator in the Central African Republic, Dr. Michel Yao, strongly condemned the attack and reminded all parties that “ violence against humanitarian workers and humanitarian assets is a violation of International Humanitarian Law and must stop.” Dr. Yao also called for the attack to be investigated and for the perpetrators to be held accountable.

On 19 June, ex-Seleka rebels abducted six policeman in the capital city of Bangui. Security Minister Jean Serge Bokassa stated, “We demand the liberation of the officers who were taken hostage. The government will do everything possible to free them.”


Democratic People’s Republic of Korea:

The field-based office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, located in Seoul, has begun stepping up its investigation into the country’s human rights violations ahead of the one year anniversary of the office’s establishment on 23 June. The UN opened the office in line with recommendations from the UN Commission of Inquiry report on the human rights record and has been conducting interviews with defectors.


Democratic Republic of Congo:

Clashes between former rebels in a camp for demobilized militia groups and government soldiers preventing them from leaving the camp resulted in nine deaths, including six of the former rebels and three soldiers. A government official admitted the clashes took place, but denied that soldiers had killed anyone. A former rebel claimed that soldiers had killed 10 of his fellow ex-fighters and claimed that their protests demanding to be returned home were peaceful. The former rebels held in the camp are ex-M23 fighters belonging to the minority Tutsi group in Rwanda.


Gaza/West Bank:

Israeli troops shot two Palestinians on 21 June, leaving a 15-year-old Palestinian boy dead when the car he was in came under gunfire by the Israeli army after several Palestinians threw rocks and firebombs at Israeli cars on a highway in the West Bank.

The West Bank is in “full crisis mode” due to Israel’s water cuts reducing the water supply to Palestinians in the northern West Bank. Residents have been receiving 30 to 40 percent of their normal water allowance. According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Palestinians in the West Bank have access to just 73 litres of water a day, compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) minimum of 100 litres. The water crisis has left some Palestinians without water for almost a week.


Iraq:

On 17 June, Iraqi forces surged into the ISIL-held city of Fallujah. Several hours later, Prime Minister Al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL in Fallujah. This comes after several months of tightening the knot on the city, which has led to tens of thousands of civilians being trapped in an ever growing humanitarian crisis. However, declarations of complete victory have been premature, as a week later Iraqi forces still have only gained control of roughly 80% of the city. When Iraqi forces began their assault, ISIL forces retreated to the edges of the city, forming “a defensive belt” which the Iraqi armed forces continued to pick apart throughout the week.

ISIL fighters have killed fifteen members of the local security forces in an assault on several villages east of the town of Tuz Khurmatu. The town is 160 kilometers north of Baghdad and, while technically falling under the purview of the central government, has recently been under the control of Kurdish Peshmerga forces, who claim it as part of Kurdistan. The following day, a car bomb, planted by ISIL, killed four people in Tuz Khurmatu.

On 20 June, attacks across Iraq left nine people dead. Three soldiers died in a suicide bombing in Ramadi, while six civilians died in several separate attacks in Baghdad.The next day, a suicide-bombing killed five Shia militia members and wounded over 35 in the northern town of Al-Dor.

An Iraqi tribal leader has accused a Shia militia of recently executing fifty Sunni prisoners in northern Iraq. The massacre allegedly took place at the Amerlin prison in Saladin province as revenge for the killing of a senior police officer in the fighting with ISIL near Amerli the previous week.

In order to provide aid to the thousands of people fleeing the fighting in Fallujah, the UN had to withdraw $15 million from its emergency fund this week. In one month, more than 85,000 people have been driven out of the city by fighting. The UN has warned that its supplies are nearly empty, as the emergency fund to provide aid to vulnerable Iraqis has not received two-thirds of its needed funding and projects have been shuttered. In light of this, the US State Department has released $20 million in aid to the Iraqi government. The UNHCR released a statement detailing the needs of the UN in aiding those Iraqis displaced from Fallujah.

Senior Pentagon officials are preparing to give approval to submit a request for a larger US military presence in Iraq to President Obama. Currently, the US has 4,100 troops in Iraq, including 217 that were recently deployed in April. At that time, it was stated that the military would request more if the current number of troops failed to aid the Iraqis in retaking Mosul.


Kenya:

Early this week, Human Rights Watch (HRW) published a brief reporting that police gunfire killed at least five people and wounded 60 others as Kenyan police used live ammunition and excessive force to attempt to break up two recent protests on 23 May and 6 June. The brief includes allegations that police used unnecessary lethal force and even shot or seriously injured uninvolved bystanders and passersby, including students. According to HRW, one witness also claimed to have seen police shoot a man leaving a bank and then take his money. HRW has called for Kenyan authorities to investigate these actions, which appear to violate both Kenyan law and international protocols for law enforcement officers’ use of force.

One person died on Monday after an ambulance hit a landmine while en route to pick up a patient in northeastern Kenya. The incident, which also seriously injured two others, took place in Garissa county, which has recently been the target of attacks by suspected al-Shabaab militants. The same day in nearby Mandera county, suspected al-Shabaab militants attacked a convoy, killing five Kenyan police officers escorting a passenger bus.


Libya:

blast at an ammunition depot in the Libyan city of Garabulli left 30 people dead and 30 more wounded on 21 June. It is not clear what triggered the explosion, but a dispute between locals and protestors from an armed group occurred beforehand. Meanwhile, east of Garabulli in the former ISIL-stronghold of Sirte, fighting between ISIL and government-backed Libyan fighters also left 30 people dead, resulting in a total of 60 people killed in just one day. The fighting also wounded around 140 militants.


Mali:

At a UN Security Council meeting discussing the UN mission in Mali (MINUSMA), Malian Prime Minister Modibo Keita, called on the Council to strengthen the peacekeeping mission in the country and to impose sanctions against those impeding the peace deal. The head of MINUSMA and UN envoy for Mali, Mahamat Saleh Annadif, presenting the UN Secretary-General’s report on the developments in the country since March, also called for better training and better equipment for peacekeepers and said “losses could have been avoided” if these had been provided earlier. He also added that, despite the slow process and the skepticism surrounding the Agreement, the situation has improved since 2012 and noted that the successful establishment of eight cantonment sites allowed for the disarmament process to begin.

On the one year anniversary of the Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation in Mali, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon released a statement commending Malian President Ibrahim Boubakar Keïta and the government for their commitment to peace. Mr. Ban also welcomed the signing of the new Protocole d’Entente on the interim authorities and other arrangements by the government and other signatory parties. He called this and the government’s appointment of Mr. Mahamadou Diagouraga as the High Representative tasked with following up on the Agreement “important steps forward”.


Nigeria:

Late last week Boko Haram fighters shot and killed at least 18 women and may have captured others who were attending a funeral in the village of Kuda in Nigeria’s restive northeast. According to witnesses, the militants rampaged through the village shooting randomly at will and setting houses on fire. Witnesses counted 18 women’s bodies after the attack, but some women are currently still missing.

The Nigeria Air Force (NAF) recently launched “Operation Gama-Aiki”, under which the NAF completed its first major air campaign, killing 15 Boko Haram militants in Borno state.

On 21 June, Medecins sans Frontieres (MSF) visited the town of Bama in Borno state for the first time since its liberation from Boko Haram’s control by the army in March 2015. MSF found 24,000 people living in a camp on a hospital compound in the town, including 15,000 children (of which 4,500 are under five years old). According to MSF, over 1,200 people have starved to death or died of illness at the camp and of the 800 children examined, around one in five were acutely malnourished. The group also reported that they had found around 1,233 graves dug in the last year near the camp and at least 188 people have died in the camp since 23 May – amounting to almost six people each day.

In the southeastern Niger Delta Region, Nigerian officials reported late last week that the government has reached a 30-day truce with militants, including the Niger Delta Avengers, who have carried out devastating attacks on oil pipelines and facilities in the region in recent months. Another official added that although a truce had been reached, talks working towards a final resolution are still on-going. However, the Niger Delta Avengers issued a statement on Twitter on Tuesday, stating that they had never agreed to a ceasefire with the government. A security expert based in Nigeria has said that he believes that the government may have been holding talks with the wrong people.


South Sudan:

On Tuesday, the UN completed an investigation into violence that occurred at a UN compound housing 50,000 civilians in Malakal. Over the course of 16-18 February, fighting between ethnic groups killed 30 civilians and 130 others. On 18 February, armed men, including members of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), burst into the camp and began shooting civilians and burning down housing complexes. Meanwhile, UN peacekeepers, mandated to use force to protect civilians, stood by, taking over 16 hours to react to the incursion into the compound. The report, obtained by several news agencies, but unlikely to be made public, details how the UN responsewas one beset by confusion, with peacekeepers fleeing their posts. Some, like Human Rights Watch, have pressured the UN to release the findings to the public, follow the investigation’s recommendations, and hold those responsible to account. In response, the UN has announced that it will be sending home peacekeepers that were found to have not appropriately responded during the situation. Meanwhile, a report by Doctors without Borders noted that, in addition to the UN failing in its duty to protect civilians, UN security rules interfered with efforts by humanitarian actors to respond to the needs of those affected by the crisis.

UNICEF has released a report highlighting the continuing use of child soldiers in South Sudan. The report, aided by the work of the UN mission in South Sudan, states that there are still over 16,000 child soldiers in South Sudan. This figure is in spite of the government’s 2008 South Sudan Child Act, which sets a minimum age of 18 for any conscription or voluntary recruitment into armed forces or groups. Furthermore, the release of all child soldiers is a stipulation of the peace agreement in South Sudan.

On 20 June, fighting erupted once again in the South Sudanese town of Raja, which saw clashes last week when armed men stormed and temporarily seized the town. Dozens of civilians have been killed in the fighting,with the International Committee of the Red Cross sending in two planes to evacuate the wounded.


Sri Lanka:

Newly uncovered evidence seems to confirm reports that the Sri Lankan armed forces may have used cluster munitions against civilians in the end stages of the country’s 26-year civil war. Testimonies from de-mining groups working in Sri Lanka have also claimed that they have discovered munitions in government-declared “no fire zones”, where authorities had told around 300,000 people during the war to gather for safety until the war’s resolution.

According to a former asylum seeker now living permanently in Australia, the group of 44 stranded Tamil asylum seekers in Indonesia, who arrived by boat on the island of Aceh on their way to Australia, were previously tortured in Sri Lanka and would certainly be persecuted once again if they return. Their compatriot in Australia identified several of the asylum seekers in Indonesia from photos as those who were allegedly tortured alongside him during his time in prison in Sri Lanka.


Sudan/Darfur:

On 17 June, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir declared a 4-month ceasefire in the Blue Nile and South Kordufan areas, which went into effect over the weekend. Rebel fighters with the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) and government forces have been engaged in fighting that has left both sides in a perpetual stalemate since 2011. The SPLM-N is the northern counterpart of the movement that brought South Sudan forward into independence and they have been fighting against their region’s continued inclusion in Sudan. Fighting has recently intensified in the area as a truce, negotiated at the end of 2015, has broken down. The SPLM-N has conditionally agreed to the ceasefire and is calling for negotiations to immediately start in the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa. This is the third ceasefire declaration by the Sudanese government in the past year.

After a three-day meeting in the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa, Sudan Call (the umbrella representation of the Sudanese opposition) stated on Sunday that they will propose a supplemental document to the Roadmap Agreement for peace in Sudan. As of yet, only the Sudanese government has signed the Roadmap crafted by the African Union High level Implementation Panel (AUHIP). The opposition has declined, stating the document only deals with a ceasefire and humanitarian access. The supplemental document, they allege, would ensure the Roadmap leads to fruitful political dialogue. The opposition currently recognizes the government-controlled dialogue process as a basis for the national constitutional dialogue and claims it lacks trust-building measures.

On 19 June, Sudan requested a meeting with Martin Uhomoibh, the head of the international peacekeeping force in Darfur (UNAMID), after the UN recommended a one-year extension of the mission’s mandate in the region. The joint AU-UN mission currently has 20,000 troops and policemen in the region. The report, presented to the UNSC last week, stated their presence is still needed due to an overall lack of progress in the peace process and continued violence, which the Sudanese government has publicly contended and disagreed with.

On 20-21 June, attacks in central Darfur killed and injured 18 people. Eyewitness reports allege that the attacks were carried out by members of the government-sponsored Janjaweed militia, which has already made several attacks looting the area’s major market and torching a multitude of shops and homes.

The following day, six student activists were released by the Sudanese security forces after being detained for a month without charges. The arrest and detention of the students, who were arrested for leading protests against government policy, sparked a wave of demonstrations and clashes with security forces.


Syria:

Developments in the fighting

On 18 June, Turkish border guards allegedly killed 11 Syrian refugees as they fled across the border into Turkey. The incident is alleged to have taken place near the village of Khirbet al-Joz in Idlib province. This is not the first time accusations of Turkish soldiers shooting fleeing Syrians have appeared, with HRW releasing a scathing report earlier this year.

On 20 June, an ISIL suicide-bomber killed three people in Qamishli. The bomber was attempting to sneak into a ceremony commemorating the victims of the Armenian genocide.

Despite earlier gains against ISIL this week, the extremist group has managed to force Syrian government troops into retreat from Raqqa, ISIL’s de-facto capital. The Syrian government had advanced as close as six miles to the town of al-Tabqa, which lies to the west of Raqqa, but has now been pushed back over 40 kilometers from Tabqa.

On 21 June, the SDF entered the ISIL-held city of Manjib in northern Aleppo after having successfully repelled an attempt by ISIL to break the siege earlier in the week. This has allowed the first humanitarian corridor into the city to be opened, allowing hundreds to flee.

Later the same day, a car-bomb killed six Jordanian soldiers near a Syrian refugee camp on the northeastern Syrian-Jordanian border. The attack is the first of its kind since the start of the Syrian civil war. More than 50,000 Syrians are living in the refugee camp there in deplorable conditions, with Jordan citing security concerns for not allowing them out the camps. Jordan has responded by announcing that there will be no new refugee camps built in the country.

On 22 June, 25 civilians are reported to have been killed in air raids in Raqqa. The strikes also injured dozens more, with the death toll expected to rise. As of yet, no party has claimed responsibility.

Delivering Aid

The UN was able to deliver deliver aid into the besieged areas of Ein Tarma, Hamouria, Hazeh, Beit Sawa and Eftreis in rural Damascus on Monday for the first time since April. This brings the total number of besieged areas reached up to 16 out of the 18 the UN has requested. However, the UN is still facing difficulties as the Syrian government continues to deny unfettered access and, in many cases, the amount of aid delivered has been restricted.

International Developments

On 16 June, the New York Times received a draft version of an internal dissent memo from the US State Department, signed by fifty-one individuals, that called for US airstrikes against the Assad regime. The memo is exceptionally critical of the Obama administration’s handling of the situation in Syria, particularly detailing the continued use of barrel bombs by the Assad regime in a campaign that is both in violation of the ceasefire and mainly targeting civilians. According to the memo, continued military pressure by the United States is the only way to stop the gross injustices being committed in Syria and force Assad to the negotiating table.

Late last week, Russia’s state-run RT network accidentally ran a segment on the Russian campaign in Syria that showed Russian planes in Syria armed with cluster bombs. While Russia has not signed the international treaty banning the use of cluster bombs, they have consistently denied using such indiscriminate bombs in Syria.

The Russian Defense Ministry has denied accusations that it bombed the US-backed New Syrian Army rebel group in southern Syria. US and Russian officials held a video-conference over the weekend to discuss the airstrikes, which are believed to include cluster munitions and which killed several rebels near Jordanian border.

On 21 June, several countries debated the issue of prosecuting alleged perpetrators of serious crimes in Syria as a UN panel, called First Cracks in the Syria Impunity Wall. The panel discussed whether or not third party countries should prosecute persons accused of committing atrocities in Syria. The push for prosecution is being made by several European countries, particularly Germany, France, Sweden and Finland. The panel follows the vetoing, by Russia and China, of a UNSC resolution that would have referred Syria to the ICC.

Norway’s parliament gave approval for the deployment of Norwegian troops to Syria on Wednesday, including the nation’s special forces. The troops will join the forces from the US and other members of the anti-ISIL coalition on the ground in training the Syrian Democratic Forces.


Yemen:

Developments in the fighting

On 18 June, reversing reports of the United Arab Emirates pulling out of the war in Yemen, the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Anwar Gargash, stated that remarks to that end have been taken out of context and that the UAE will continue to take part in the Saudi-led coalition fighting in Yemen.

The U.S. military has announced that it is planning on continuing its ongoing mission in Yemen against al-Qaeda.  The U.S. now plans on keeping a small, twelve-man, Special-Operations team in Yemen to assist Gulf State forces on the ground. The team was originally sent in April for a limited operation. The U.S. had previously established such a team in Yemen but withdrew it in 2014 in light of the deteriorating situation.

On 21 June, the Saudi-led coalition in Yemen claimed to have intercepted a ballistic missile fired at the city of Marib, which is controlled by the coalition. Seperately, a coalition airstrike in the mountainous area of Lahj province is said to have killed eight civilians. The airstrike is alleged to have taken place during a three-day battle for the mountain range that overlooks Yemen’s largest airbase, which has apparently left 45 dead and the Houthi rebels in control and overlooking the base.

On 22 June, 13 people died in renewed clashes, in the central city of Taiz, between the Houthi rebels and Yemeni government forces. Both civilians and fighters have been counted amongst the dead in the fighting, which has continued despite an agreed upon by ceasefire by both sides. The next day Houthi rebels allegedly killed seven civilians while in pursuit of a pro-government militia leader. The Houthi’s have claimed that the raid, which took place in central Yemen, was in pursuit of a “terrorist cell” and that they had killed eight members of al- Qaeda. While reports have been increasing of al- Qaeda militants fighting alongside the Yemeni government in central Yemen, the Houthis commonly characterize all the militias that oppose them as al-Qaeda. On the same day, local residents in the south of the country reportedthe return of  al-Qaeda to their towns after an absence of a month. Al-Qaeda had previously retreated from many major population centers in the area following tribal negotiations.

Developments in the peace process

On 18-19 June, the largest prisoner swap yet in the conflict in Yemen took place, with 224 prisoners being exchanged by the Houthi rebels and forces loyal to Yemen’s internationally recognized government in the city of Taez.

Highlighting
 the contention at the peace talks in Kuwait, the Houthi delegation announced on 22 June that they would refuse to sign onto any peace agreement which did not include an agreement on a consensus President to lead Yemen through its transition period. Concurrently, the Yemeni delegation has demanded that the Houthis withdraw from all  territory captured since 2014 and give over control of political institutions to the Yemeni government before negotiations. The demands are in light of the submission of a Roadmap for Peace for Yemen by the UN Special Envoy for Yemen, Ismail Ould Cheikh Ahmed.


What else is new?

Responding to worrying developments such as the revocation of citizenship for over 250 individuals since July 2014, including most recently Sheikh Issa Qassem, among other human rights violations, the Special Adviser for the Prevention of Genocide, Mr. Adama Dieng, released a statement on 22 June expressing concern for the situation and calling in the government to recommit to national dialogue. See full statement here.

Monday, 20 June marked World Refugee Day, with a report released by the UN Refugee Agency entitled Global Trends showing that a record high of 65.3 million people were displaced from their homes due to conflict and violence in 2015. The Global Trends report shared staggering findings, including that 1 in every 113 people in the world is an asylum-seeker, internally displaced person, or refugee, with 24 people displaced per minute in 2015. To put the vast numbers of displaced persons in perspective, the International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect has produced a new infographic showing what displacement in countries experiencing atrocity crimes means in other terms.View the infographic here.

On Sunday 19 June, the first International Day for the Elimination of Sexual Violence in Conflict, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon declared that the time of impunity for the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war is over. He cited several landmark court rulings convicting and sentencing former political and military leaders for their involvement in conflict-related sexual violence, including in the convictions of two former Guatemalan military officers in a national court in Guatemala, the International Criminal Court’s first sexual and gender-based crimes conviction of Jean-Pierre Bemba, and the conviction of former Chadian President Hissène Habré in the Senegalese judicial system for rape and sexual slavery earlier this year. The latter is the first time in history that a former Head of State has been convicted and held personally accountable for the commission of rape as an international crime. The ICC also sentenced Bemba on 21 June to 18 years in prison for crimes against humanity and war crimes, including rape. A summary of the ICC’s decision in the Bemba case can be read here.

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#R2PWeekly: 13 – 17 June 2016

UntitledUN Commission of Inquiry Releases Report Stating ISIS Has Committed Genocide Against Yazidis

“Genocide has occurred and is ongoing,” according to Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro, Chairman of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic. This is the conclusion reached by the Commission in the landmark report released this week, titled “They Came to Destroy: ISIS Crimes Against the Yazidis”. The Commission determined that the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has been engaged in a systematic policy of genocide against the Yazidi people, an ethno-religious minority group in Iraq and Syria, which ISIL considers to be infidels. This marks the first time in history that a non-state actor has been accused of the crime of genocide. The report details, at length, the myriad of specific ways in which ISIL has systematically and continuously attempted to destroy the Yazidis in line with the understanding given in the 1948 Genocide Convention.

The report was conducted in line with the CoI’s mandate, and thus the document focuses on violations committed against the community within Syria, while also examining how ISIL “forcibly transferred Yazidis into Syria after its attacks on northern Iraq’s Sinjar region” in 2014. The report relied on 45 interviews given by survivors, religious leaders, smugglers, medical personnel, and journalists to give detail to the murders, mass executions, rapes, cultural destruction, and forced conversions that continue to take place. Corroborating documentary material to substantiate these interviews was also used, including hundreds of photographs, satellite images, reports, and the factual findings of the OHCHR Fact-Finding Mission on the human rights situation in Iraq, as well as information gathered from ISIL.

The Yazidi community of Sinjar, compromising 400,000 people, has been the victim of a systematic policy of genocide since ISIL launched their offensive on the group’s home region of Sinjar in Iraq on 2 August 2014. ISIL’s actions against the Yazidis have also included crimes against humanity and war crimes, while the genocidal measures against Yazidis have taken many forms. The report demonstrates that ISIL has conducted not only a deliberate policy of mass killings and executions, but also sexual slavery, chattel slavery, the destruction of Yazidi homes and shrines, among other crimes.  Women have been sold into slavery and forced into a daily program of rapes and physical abuse. Currently 3,200 Yazidi women and girls are held in sexual slavery across Syria, while Yazidi boys, some as young as 7, are taken from their mothers and indoctrinated into ISIL’s radical interpretation of Sunni Islam to be used as child soldiers. The whereabouts of thousands of Yazidi men and boys are still unaccounted for and 30 mass graves been found in Iraq thus far.

The report also includes a number of recommendations for the relevant parties to the current conflict as well as the broader international community. For contracting parties to the Genocide Convention, the CoI strongly reminds all parties of their obligations as outlined within the Convention and urges them to call on UN bodies to act within the mandate of the UN Charter to halt the ongoing genocide. The Commission also specifically encouraged Iraq and Syria to urgently ratify the Rome Statute and called for the UN Office of the Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide to remain seized of the situation, bringing attention to and alerting relevant actors, and advocating on behalf of the Yazidi people. The recommendations also pressured the UN Security Council (UNSC) to do more on the issue, including ensuring that it is continuously on the Council’s docket, considering use of its Chapter VII powers, and referring its findings to the International Criminal Court (ICC). In the event that these recommendations are not followed, the report urged the international community to recognize the ongoing situation as the crime of genocide, put pressure on the UNSC to take the necessary actions to halt the genocide, and support the establishment of an ad hoc tribunal to hold the perpetrators of these crimes accountable. Furthermore, the report also called upon the international community to increase its support for the victims of these crimes through an increased and expedited asylum process as well as supporting them through increased funding for psychological programs.

The full report can be read here.


Catch up on developments in…
Burma/Myanmar
Burundi
Central African Republic
DRC
Gaza/West Bank
I
raq
Kenya
Libya
Mali
Nigeria
S
outh Sudan
Sudan/Darfur
Syria
Yemen
Other

Burma/Myanmar:

The United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC) stated they would like to hold talks with the new government peace negotiator, Dr. Tin Myo Win, before meeting with state counselor Aung San Suu Kyi. The pre-negotiations are aimed at smoothing things over before the 21st Century Panglong Conference. The Burmese army also has demands prior to the peace conference, including insisting that three armed groups, the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA), Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA), and Arakan Army (AA), disarm before negotiations take place. These armed groups have stated they will not comply, further complicating relations prior to the talks.

The Burmese government has resumed construction of a fence along the country’s border with Bangladesh. The porous border previously allowed easy access into Bangladesh for Rohingya Muslims fleeing persecution in Myanmar.

The Kachin National Organization (KNO) has asked Pakistan to stop the sale of fighter jets to the government of Myanmar. The KNO President stated these fighter jets are used by the government to eliminate certain ethnic groups in conflict zones.


Burundi:

A rural secondary school in Burundi sent home 230 students for defacing a picture of President Nkurunziza in their textbooks on 14 June. Last week, 11 high schoolers were arrested for the same crime, facing up to five years in jail as a punishment. Nine schools in eastern Burundi are currently under investigation for defaced pictures of the President in school textbooks.

The United Nations Independent Investigation on Burundi (UNIIB) will conduct its second visit to Burundi from 13 to 17 June. The human rights situation in Burundi prompts a follow-up visit, where three human rights experts of the UNIIB will meet with civil society, regional partners, victims of human rights violations, and others. The final report will be presented to the Human Rights Council in September.

A grenade explosion in President Pierre Nkurunziza’s hometown of Ngozi killed two civilians and injured four more on 14 June. The grenade exploded in the hands of the soldier before he threw it into a crowd, killing the soldier.


Central African Republic:

The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) kidnapped 29 people from two villages in the Central African Republic this week. The kidnappings come as Uganda decided it will withdraw its troops from the African Union (AU) mission in the CAR before the end of the year. 2,500 Ugandan troops currently operate in the CAR, working to hunt down members of the LRA rebel group. According to a recent report by the UN Security Council, LRA rebels have abducted 252 civilians in the first quarter of 2016 alone. The U.N. envoy for Central Africa, Abdoulaye Bathily, said “the withdrawal of the Ugandan troops may create a vacuum which may be used not only by the LRA but also the other armed groups which are in the region.” The leader of the LRA, Joseph Kony, is wanted by the International Criminal Court for war crimes and crimes against humanity for recruiting children as soldiers and sex slaves.

Violent clashes between Muslims and Christians claimed three lives in the Central African Republic’s capital of Bangui on 12 June. The fighting started as a result of Muslims avenging the death of a Muslim taxi driverbelieved to be killed by Christians on 11 June.


Democratic Republic of Congo:

The main opposition parties in the DRC have decided to unite under one umbrella group in order to force President Kabila to leave office. The group calls itself “Rassemblement” or “Rally” and formed itself formally in Belgium last week. Various opposition groups have been holding regular nationwide demonstrations against a potential third term for the current president.


Gaza/West Bank:

The recent cancellation of 83,000 Palestinian travel permits by Israel may be considered “collective punishment,” which is banned under international law. The policy was criticized by the UN as possibly stoking tensions in an already frustrated conflict. The Israeli military also blocked off the West Bank for three days from 10 – 12 June due to security concerns following the attack on a market in Tel Aviv on 8 June that killed four Israelis.

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated that he will never accept the Arab Peace Initiative as it is currently on 13 June. The plan, proposed in 2002, promised full diplomatic relations with Arab states in exchange for the establishment of a Palestinian state in accordance with the 1967 boundary lines. While Arab states have consistently supported the peace initiative, the Israeli government has demanded changes to the conditions several times over the years.

Israeli water company, Mekorot, has cut off water valves supplying Palestinians in the northern West Bank since the beginning of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Israeli citizens get priority over the Palestinians in receiving water, placing a heavy burden on fasting Palestinians. Meanwhile, 95% of water in Gaza has been deemed “unfit for human use,” according to the European Union (EU). Unsanitary water, caused in large part by cut-offs from Israel, places the 1.8 million people living in Gaza without water, with many already living in poverty. The EU has supported the construction of a desalination plant in the Gaza Strip, which will serve 150,000 residents in its final stage.

Israel’s Defense Ministry announced plans on 16 June to build a wall around the Gaza Strip both above and underground. The plan, estimated to cost $568 million, is to build barriers to counter attacks through underground tunnels running between Gaza and Israel.

Hamas fired dozens of short-range rockets in Gaza on 10 June as part of a test launch. The rockets were not aimed at Israeli territory and did not bring anyone to harm.

Israeli jets launched an airstrike on the southern Gaza Strip on 14 June, causing no damage or casualties. The army stated the attack was part of an air force exercise, however refused to give more details.


Iraq:

On 12 June, Iraqi armed forces launched a new offensive in the Mosul region, pushing towards the village of Hal Aji, situated across the river from the Islamic State hub of Qayara. Qayara contains an airfield which Iraqi forces plan on using as a major-staging ground for the future operation to retake Mosul, only 40 miles to the north.

The same day, Iraqi armed forces around Fallujah managed to create and secure their first safe-exit route for civilians trapped in the ISIL-held city, currently under siege. Within 48 hours, 7,000 people had already managed to escape the city through this route. Iraqi forces announced that they had arrested over 500 suspected members of ISIL, in that figure of 7,000, attempting to flee through the safe-exit route using fake IDs. Since that time, the flow of people escaping from ISIL diminished, dropping from roughly 3,500/day over the weekend to less than 1,000 on Tuesday. ISIL has been conducting a policy of either shooting at civilians as they attempt to flee or demanding a $100 exit tax.

On Monday, the Iraqi government announced that authorities had made the first arrests in regard to reports of the execution of dozens of Sunni men fleeing Fallujah by Shiite militiamen aiding the army in retaking the city. Reports claimed that 643 men had gone missing and been subjected to torture by the militia, with 49 killed. The U.N. reported last week that it “knew of ‘extremely distressing, credible reports’ of men and boys being abused by armed groups working with security forces after fleeing Falluja.” However, not wanting to put such a label on the entirety of Shia militias that Baghdad has come to depend on for its offensives, the Iraqi President, Fuad Massoum, stressed that individuals had committed these acts and that they were not the deliberate actions or orders of a specific group.

Masrour Barzani, head of the Kurdistan Regional Government’s (KRG) Security Council and son of KRG President Massoud Barzani, told reporters this week that he believes that after the defeat of ISIL, Iraq should be partitioned into three separate states, including separate states for the Shia, Sunni, and Kurds because the level of mistrust between the different groups comprising Iraq is too high. The Kurds have already taken steps of their own towards independence, heightening tensions with Baghdad.

Moqtada al-Sadr, the powerful Iraqi Shiite cleric who helped rally an insurgency against American forces in Iraq, has asked his supporters to stop attacking the office of rival, Iranian-backed Shiite political parties. Al-Sadr has previously accused these parties of corruption and his followers stormed and assaulted multiple offices at the end of last week. The tension between al-Sadr and the rival political parties began to turn violent in late May, when his supporters stormed Baghdad’s heavily fortified government district, known as the Green Zone, for a second time leading to the deaths of four protesters.

On Wednesday, two separate bomb blasts in Baghdad killed 9 civilians and left multitudes wounded. The attacks targeted a military checkpoint, killing 7 soldiers, and a fruit and vegetable warehouse, killing two civilians.

The United States and Norway have announced a joint initiative to help defuse and destroy mines put in place by ISIL in Iraq and Syria. The $30 million dollar initiative will begin this year and continue through 2017, as the US and Norway prepare to hold a ministerial-level de-mining conference in the autumn at the UN.


Kenya:

UN High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi visited Kenya this week and met with President Uhuru Kenyatta to talk about the future of Somali refugees in refugee camps in Kenya. President Kenyatta assured the High Commissioner that Kenya would uphold its international obligations and respect the rights of the refugees while returning them to Somalia.

Kenyan authorities have taken eight politicians into custody and detained them on allegations of hate speech as tensions grow between government and opposition supporters ahead of the 2017 presidential election. The detainees are made up of members of both the governing Jubilee coalition and the main opposition group, Coalition for Reforms and Democracy (CORD), and stand accused of making statements that are “laced with ethnic hatred, vilification and border on incitement.” A judge authorized their detention for four days and the politicians are to appear before court again on 17 June.


Libya:

The UN Security Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) until 15 December to further efforts towards a political solution to the conflict. The current mandate was set to expire on 15 June. The Council also reaffirmed its support for the Libyan Political Agreement as well as the Government of National Accord in stabilizing Libya.

On 14 June, The UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2292, authorizing inspections of vessels off the coast of Libya suspected of trafficking arms and weapons. The Security Council stated its concern of such weapons falling into the hands of terrorist groups within Libya, most notably ISIL.

Clashes between the government-back military forces and ISIL in Libya left five Libyan soldiers dead and 37 wounded. Libyan forces are preparing for the final battle to regain complete control over Sirte from ISIL. The offensive against ISIL in Libya has left 145 pro-government fighters dead and over 500 injured.


Mali:

The European Council has increased the budget of the European Union’s civilian mission supporting Malian security forces, EUCAP Sahel Mali, by almost 5 million Euros after the recent security incidents in Bamako, the capital.

Clashes between pro-government militias and the Macina Liberation Front, a group of Islamic fighters, killed eight Islamist militants in the Timbuktu region of Mali.


Nigeria:

According to a new report by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), women living in displacement sites in Borno state in northeastern Nigeria face a high risk of abuse. The conflict in the region has destroyed the traditional hierarchy system and has caused many families and households to now be run by women. Because of the region’s traditional community and household frameworks, and a strict Islamic doctrine preventing women to leave home to seek a form of livelihood, these female-led households are left without traditional support systems and are often forced to resort to riskier endeavours to meet the basic needs of their households.

On 12 June, only a few days after originally rejecting the government’s proposal for dialogue, the Niger Delta Avengers blew up a second crude oil pipeline in the region. The Avengers have since said that they will consider peace talks, but have also stated that they are now considering overturning another previous decision to avoid taking lives. The Avengers also reiterated a warning to oil companies not to try to repair previously blown-up facilities or pipelines.

Amnesty International has released a new report claiming that the Nigerian military has killed at least 17 Biafra secessionist protesters, including some who were shot in the back, indicating that they may have been fleeing. The Nigerian military has denied these claims, but Amnesty International is calling for the government to investigate the incident, which occurred last month in the city of Onitsha.


South Sudan:

Fighting broke out on 11 June in Central Equatoria state just south of the capital, Juba, between forces loyal to President Salva Kiir and those loyal to First Vice President Riek Machar. The clashes left 21 people dead and dozens injured, making this outburst of fighting the deadliest in the area since the formation of the transitional government of national unity. The forces of both sides in the area have yet to be cantoned to specific areas in the state.

On 13 June, members of South Sudan’s national security forces opened fire on students at Juba University during an election of the guild president of the university. The incident was allegedly preceded by arguments between students supporting the opposition leader, First Vice President Machar, and those supporting President Kiir. As the arguments escalated, the security forces are alleged to have broken in and intimidated the students, resulting in shots being fired and students being pushed off campus.

On Wednesday, a group of armed men overtook the town of Raja, the administrative headquarters of the newly created Lol state. The governor and his cabinet fled under heavy gunfire, with the location of the deputy governor unknown. No group has come forward to claim responsibility for the attack on the border town. However, the assault included a direct attempt on the governor’s life and left several injured. South Sudanese government forces managed to retake the town the next day, noting that several tribes in the area have been frustrated with the creation of the new state.

The UN has released its latest figures on those fleeing from violence in South Sudan, stating that 47,000 South Sudanese have fled into Sudan since the beginning of the year, citing the continued outbreaks of violence in South Sudan coupled with growing food insecurity. UN peacekeeping chief, Herve Ladsous, also noted that “spoilers” are still operating in South Sudan in hopes of derailing the peace process. Since the formation of the unity government, the UN has seen three of its aid workers killed while working to support the over 150,000 civilians remaining in UN-guarded camps.

The President of the UN Human Rights Council (HRC), Ambassador Choi Kyonglim, has appointed the members of the Commission of Human Rights in South Sudan. The Commission has a one-year mandate to investigate the human rights situation in South Sudan and make recommendations for its improvement. The Commissioner will also advise the South Sudanese government on matters of transitional justice, accountability, and reconciliation issues and work with international and regional mechanisms.

On 15 June, Governor Patrick Zamoi of the newly created South Sudan state of Gbudue, helped launch the start of a three-year reintegration program targeting conflict-affected communities in the town of Yambio. The program seeks to teach peacebuilding techniques and increase peacebuilding capacities amongst communities. The program, supported financially by UNICEF, will particularly target women, children, and youth who were formally fighting in the civil war and need to be reintegrated into society.


Sudan/Darfur:

Over the weekend members of Sudan’s National Intelligence and Security Services raided the home of the director of the El Khatim Adlan Centre for Enlightenment (KACE), El Bagir El Afif. KACE is among several civil society organizations that have been forcefully closed by the Sudanese government in recent years. This comes in the wake of the detention of several members of a separate civil society organization for the past several weeks by security services.

Clashes broke out on Monday when pro-government militia members attacked police and government troops in the central Darfur town of Zalingei after police arrested a high-ranking militia leader accused of stealing vehicles. The fighting was an attempt to secure his release.

On 13 June, the Sudanese government officially announced the dissolution of the Darfur Regional Authority (DRA) and the Darfur Peace Office in July. This is one of the final steps in the implementation of the peace agreement in Darfur.  The DRA was an outcome of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD), implemented in July 2011. The original 4-year mandate of the DRA to implement the peace document was extended for an additional year last summer.

Sudanese Defense Minister Awad Ibn Ouf has announced that the Border Guard Forces (BGF) will take part in the collection of illegal weapons in Darfur. The first phase of the operation will be on a voluntary basis, while the second will involve heavy disarmament operations and legal action. However, the BGF is mainly composed of the infamous Arab militias that the central government used when Darfur first rose up in rebellion in 2003, raising concerns over potential abuses and previous tensions rising.

Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Hervé Ladsous, noted this week that minimal progress has been made in creating a political solution for the crisis in Darfur and, as such, the mandate of the joint African Union-United Nations mission in Darfur (UNAMID) should be extended for another year. Contained in the Special Report of the Secretary-General and the Chairperson of the AU Commission on UNAMID, Mr. Ladsous’ assessment of the situation highlights that sectarian violence continues to fester in Darfur due to disputes over access to land, water, and grazing areas, creating an atmosphere of insecurity. Currently 2.6 Million people remain internally displaced in Darfur.

On 15 June, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) requested the participation of Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni in the current peace process in Sudan. The two rebel groups, which have been in conflict in Darfur with the central government since 2003, have not signed onto the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur and, although they hope to sign the Document, they would like to see it opened up for re-negotiation on certain issues. As of now, the two groups also refuse to sign the Roadmap Agreement facilitated by the African Union requesting the creation of a positive environment for the constitutional conference. In the past, the Sudanese government has accused Uganda of supporting rebellion in Darfur. This tension has led the US Special Envoy for Sudan to meet with the two rebel groups later this week in hopes of overcoming the current halt in the peace process.


Syria:

The Syria Democratic Forces (SDF) pushed further against ISIL this week in their offensive to capture Manbij. The SDF cut off the last supply route from the nearby town of al-Bab, which has allowed the SDF to lay siege to the town from all sides. However, the forces are still holding back from an all-out assault on Manbi out of fear of harming the civilians trapped in the city.

ISIL kidnapped dozens of Kurdish villagers this week in the northwest of Aleppo, after storming several villages. The estimated number of those kidnapped is 210. The event has raised fears that those taken may be used as human-shields by ISIL, as is currently being done in Manbij. Others fear that they may become the victims of revenge killings for the actions of the SDF.

On Saturday, 12 people died from a triple-suicide bombing in the Damascus suburb of Sayyida Zeinab. Has has claimed responsibility for the attack, which was carried out in a predominantly Shia area, home to the holiest Shia shrine in Syria.

Airstrikes in the city of Idlib killed 34 people on Sunday, while other airstrikes in Maarat al-Numan killed seven people. Although neither the Syrian nor Russian governments have claimed responsibility, the Syrian government began an intensified aerial campaign in Idlib province last month.

On 15 June, fighting in Aleppo province killed over 70 people, as the Syrian government, rebels, and jihadists all engaged in intense fighting. The majority of this fighting took place in the villages of Zaytan and Khalasa to the southwest of Aleppo. The government also greatly increased the intensity of airstrikes and shelling on rebel-held supply lines to the north of the city. The combination of these circumstances has recently left Aleppo cut off from aid deliveries. In light of the deteriorating humanitarian situation there, the parties declared a 48-hour ceasefire, which went into effect at midnight on Wednesday. However, humanitarian officials have stressed that the ceasefire does not provide nearly enough time to deliver the required humanitarian assistance to the city.

Syrian armed forces attempted to advance on the ISIL-held town of Tabqa on 15 June. The city lies in eastern Syria on the Euphrates river, home to an important dam. The advance halted as ISIL mounted a counterattack, which has left 28 dead. Earlier in the month, buoyed by Russian air support, government troops had started their advance on Tabqa. However, ISIL has been reinforcing the town in anticipation of an intense government assault.

An aid convoy of 31 trucks entered the besieged city of al-Houla, home to 14,200 families on 11 June. This is the first out of a multitude of planned convoys to reach Syria’s 19 besieged areas, allowed after the Syrian government finally acquiesced to UN and international pressure. The delivery comes in the wake of a food aid convoy entering the city of Daraya for the first time since 2012, this past Friday. However, hours after they convoy left, airstrikes by the Syrian government were reported in the area, casting doubt on the Syrian government’s overall commitment.

In the days following the start of the planned aid convoys, the Syria Campaign released a report accusing the UN of losing its impartiality in Syria due to the overwhelming majority of aid being delivered to government held areas. The report based its findings off of interviews with both former and current aid workers in Syria, claiming that the UN’s fear of having its visas revoked or being kicked out of the country have led it to comply with the Syrian government of directing aid only to government held areas. The report further calls for the UN to set conditions for how it interacts with the Syrian government that will insure impartiality in aid delivery and that if they are not met that the U.N. should withdraw any and all cooperation with the Syrian government. The UN Spokesperson responded to the report by stating that calling such work impartial “discredits the amazing work of our colleagues, mostly Syrians, are doing every day to try to deliver aid to the Syrian people.”

After United Nations envoy Staffan de Mistura stated that a large number of prisoners had been released from the Adra Central Prison near Damascus, the Syrian National Council (SNC) has come forward claiming that the former prisoners had been released after they agreed to join the Syrian armed forces. They are being sent to the frontlines near Aleppo and Qamishli to fight ISIL in order to decrease defections, according to the SNC.

In a report, released on Monday, the UN confirmed that it is making progress in its investigation of nine chemical weapons attacks in Syria. However, the Joint Investigative Mechanism (JIM), set up by the UNSC last year, has not yet determined who is responsible for the attacks and is asking the member states to be more forthcoming with information. The 24-member team will give its final report in August, when its one-year mandate ends into their investigation into what have mostly been described as attacks using chlorine gas in barrel bombs.

On Wednesday, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) lambasted international donors for their lack of commitment to pledges made to help those countries dealing with greatest pressure from the Syrian refugee crisis. In February, several countries, including some of the world’s most well off, pledged $11 billion to help Syria’s regional neighbors manage their growing refugee populations. However, only $2.5 million has actually been given so far.


Yemen:

On 13 June, a suspected overnight drone-strike, most likely carried out by the United States, killed three alleged al-Qaida militants in the central Shabwa province. At the same time, the Saudi-led coalition began a series of raids in the former south-Yemen al-Qaida stronghold of Mukalla, detaining some 150 men.

On 14 June, the UN’s special envoy for Yemen, Ismail Ould Cheikh Ahmed, reneged on his plans to submit a roadmap for peace for Yemen. In doing so, an anonymous source cited that fault in the delay lies primarily with ““the [Houthi] rebels’ intransigent stance which their last statement has revealed and which took negotiations back.” The first portion of the proposed, and currently in limbo, peace plan will allegedly involve preliminary procedures. In light of this, on 15 June, the two sides began discussions over forming military and security committees to oversee a transition period. However, sticking points remain over the Houthi refusal to turn over their heavy weapons and the government having no desire to include the Houthis in a unity government. This contention over the Houthis refusal to budge on this position has led the Yemeni government to threaten to pull out of the talks.

On 14 June, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) released a report tallying the continued human devastation since the beginning of the ceasefire in Yemen two months ago. Despite the ceasefire, MSF treated 1,624 people with injuries in the city of Taiz due to continued intense fighting in the city. The report highlights that none of the parties to the conflict appear to be making an effort to halt the civilian casualties in the area.

On 15 June, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) announced it will end its military operation in Yemen, stating “war is over for our troops.” Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Anwar Gargash stated the UAE was “monitoring political engagement and empowering Yemenis in liberated areas.” While the UAE has announced its withdrawal, fighting has continued in several areas of the country leaving 48 dead over Wednesday and Thursday, with the besieged city of Taiz seeing renewed heavy clashes.


What else is new?

The ICRtoP released an infographic designed as an educational tool on the Geneva III peace process and Syria. The infographic explores the actors involved, those left out of the process, the issues at stake, and the current situation in Syria since the talks stalled.Please view the infographic here.

The Group of Friends of RtoP based in Geneva delivered a joint statement commemorating the tenth anniversary of the Human Rights Council.

The Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, Mr. Adama Dieng, released a statement on 7 June in response to the inflammatory rhetoric by President Jammeh of the Gambia. The Special Advisor condemned language that was used at a political rally on 3 June, in which he referred to the Mandinka ethnic group as “enemies, foreigners,” and threatened to kill members of the group. The Special Adviser reminded that such “incitement to violence can be both a warning sign and a powerful trigger for atrocity crimes,” and urged President Jammeh to fulfill Gambia’s responsibility to protect.

On 6 June, the Friends Committee on National Legislation released a sign on letter with support from 44 NGOs, including the ICRtoP, urging Congressional Action on Executive Order S.2551 of 18 March.

Last week the United States Institute of Peace released a PeaceBrief entitled, China and the Responsibility to Protect: From Opposition to Advocacy. Written by Courtney J. Fung, the PeaceBrief explores China’s position on RtoP by providing a historical trajectory of the country’s engagement with the principle.

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#R2PWeekly: 6 – 10 June 2016

Untitled

Crimes against Humanity Occurring in Eritrea

On 8 June, The UN Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea released a report stating that widespread crimes against humanity have been committed in the country over the past 25 years since its independence in 1991. The report’s findings are based on testimonies from 833 Eritreans. 45,000 written submissions were received during the second investigation this past year, revealing common themes of an orchestrated government campaign to refute the Inquiry’s claims. The crimes found to have been committed include enslavement, imprisonment, enforced disappearances, torture, persecution, rape, murder, and other acts aimed at maintaining an authoritarian rule in Eritrea. The Commission found the Eritrean government, military commanders, and members of the National Security Office to be directly responsible for the crimes and the enslavement of almost 400,000 Eritreans. Notably, since the Commission of Inquiry’s last report published in June 2015, the authors underscored that “no improvement was found in the human rights situation in Eritrea.”

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400,000 people, nearly five percent of the population, have fled Eritrea due to the country’s indefinite military and national service programs. Under Eritrean law, each citizen must serve 18 months in national service, yet many serve for an indefinite period, with the report noting the use of conscription as a means of forced labor.  5,000 Eritreans per month attempt to flee the country, despite the danger of facing border guards with orders to shoot to kill people leaving the country. There were 47,025 Eritreans  seeking asylum in Europe in 2015, making the group the second-largest group of asylum seekers. As one expert journalist noted, ““Denied a chance to express themselves at home, Eritreans continue to vote with their feet, which is as strong a confirmation of the commission’s findings as any.”

All governments, including the Eritrean government, have a responsibility to protect their populations from genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and ethnic cleansing. When a state is unable or, as the CoI determined in its report, is itself the perpetrator of such crimes, the international community has a key role to play and must take timely and decisive action to ensure that populations are protected from mass atrocity crimes. The CoI report articulates a range of recommendations for the government, various UN bodies, Member States, and the African Union to implement to halt the commission of crimes against humanity, ensure justice for victims, and establish the policies and mechanisms needed to prevent future atrocities. As Eritrea is an authoritarian state with no democratic institutions, the resulting power vacuum creates “a climate of impunity for crimes against humanity to be perpetrated,” says Mike Smith, Chair of the Commission of Inquiry. As such, the Commission of Inquiry recommended that the African Union establish a mechanism for accountability, as well as for the Security Council to refer the case to the International Criminal Court. It further suggests the Council impose travel bans and asset freezes; for the Human Rights Council to support a structure within OHCHR with a protection and promotion mandate; and for member states to assist Eritrea to strengthen its judiciary and reform its security sector.
Read the Commission’s report and full recommendations here.


Catch up on developments in…

Burma/Myanmar
Burundi
Central African Republic
DRC
Gaza/West Bank
Iraq
Kenya
Libya
Nigeria
South Sudan
Sudan/Darfur
Syria
Yemen
Other


Burma/Myanmar:

The Arakan state government has said it will begin taking count of the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) residing in camps within three of the state’s townships. The government had not previously accounted for Muslims in the state during the 2014 census due to their refusal to identify as Bengali. However, some Muslim villagers are still refusing to participate in the census because neither their nationality nor religion will be displayed on the identification card.

The Buddhist extremist group Ma Ba Tha held their annual summit on 4 June in Yangon. Known as The Association for the Protection of Race and Religion, the anti-Muslim group consistently urges the government to protect Buddhism and strictly implement the citizenship law of 1982 denying Rohingya Muslims citizenship.


Burundi:

Burundi police opened fire on a protest by schoolchildren on 3 June, who were rallying against the detainment of 11 high schoolers arrested for defacing a photo of President Pierre Nkurunziza. Though authorities released six students on Tuesday, five remain to face prosecution. UNICEF has expressed its concern over the arbitrary arrests and called on Burundi to ensure the right of children’s education.

A Burundian journalist was arrested while visiting friends on 5 June. Egide Ndayisenga worked at Bonesha FM, a radio station shut down in May 2015 for conspiring with generals who opposed President Pierre Nkurunziza.


Central African Republic:

The remains of 18 people killed by peacekeepers from the Republic of Congo in the Central African Republic were found in a mass grave near a peacekeeping camp in Boali. Found in February 2016, the bodies have been identified as anti-Balaka members arrested by peacekeepers in March 2014. Human Rights Watch is calling on the Congolese government to take action against the guilty soldiers serving in the UN peacekeeping mission, MINUSCA.

In a note from the Secretary-General on 8 June, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon discussed the investigations launched by the UN in response to the allegations against peacekeepers. The Secretary-General’s note assures the peacekeepers serving in MINUSCA were investigated promptly and 20 implicated Congolese peacekeepers were disciplined and banned from future service in UN peacekeeping operations. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon expects full disciplinary and judicial action to be taken by the Republic of Congo to hold the perpetrators accountable.

France suspended five of its peacekeepers due to violence against civilians during their mission in the Central African Republic. The violence, which occurred in early 2014, was not linked to the widespread allegations of sexual abuse. Four other peacekeepers not complicit but aware of the attacks were given disciplinary action as well.

UN officials announced on 3 June that Burundi police units stationed in the Central African Republic will not be replaced. The decision to terminate the police mission was made “given the current allegations of serious and ongoing human rights violations in Burundi,” said peacekeeping advisor Stefan Feller. 840 military troops will continue serving in the Central African Republic mission.


Democratic Republic of Congo:

Thousands flocked to Kinshasa on Saturday to celebrate President Joseph Kabila’s birthday and show their support for him. At the rally, another high party official made a suggestion to hold a referendum on the extension of the president’s rule, a pronouncement which is likely to fuel suspicions that Kabila may be attempting to stay in power beyond the constitutional two-term limit.

The UN, African Union (AU), European Union (EU), and the International Organization of La Francophonie (IOF) have reaffirmed their support, in a joint statement, for the political dialogue in the DRC and have urged all stakeholders to work together for its sustained success. They also encouraged the government to uphold its commitment to protecting the human rights and freedoms enshrined in the DRC’s Constitution, including the release of political prisoners.


Gaza/West Bank:

Israel is holding discussions with the International Criminal Court (ICC) over the investigation into possible war crimes during the 2014 50-day war with Gaza. While no details have been given, the dialogue indicates a shift from Israel’s former refusal to cooperate with the ICC on the basis that Palestine can not be considered a sovereign state under an international court.

Israeli minister Uri Ariel has plans to fully annex Area C of the West Bank, currently under total Israeli military control. Numbers on the Arab population of Area C remain a mystery, with the UN estimating as many as 297,500 and Israel estimating as low as 50,000.

Israel has approved the construction of 82 new settlement homes in a neighborhood in occupied East Jerusalem. The settlements are considered illegal under international law, and the new permits raise tensions following the Arab-Israeli peace talks held in Paris last week.

Palestine will hold talks with French Special Envoy Pierre Vimont to discuss the suggestions made during last week’s peace talks in Paris.

Two Palestinian gunmen opened fire in a popular food and retail center in Tel Aviv across from Israel’s Defense Ministry on 8 June, killing 4 and wounding a dozen others. Hamas has welcomed the attack, but no Palestinian group has yet taken responsibility for the killings. In response to the attack, Israel strongly increased its military presence in the West Bank and revoked the travel permits of 83,000 West Bank Palestinians, cancelling the recent policy to ease travel for Palestinians in the month of Ramadan.


Iraq:

On 5 June, Iraqi forces and allied militia took control of several suburbs of Fallujah to the south, with the only side of Fallujah that remained to be secured being the western bank of the Euphrates. On Wednesday, Iraqi forces officially entered into Fallujah for the first time in two years. While met with initial success, the offensive to retake Fallujah temporarily had been halted over humanitarian concerns and is expected to be slowed as the Iraqi army meets more resistance from ISIL and deals with the 50,000 civilians being used as human shields.

The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) has released information corroborating witness reports that ISIL fighters are shooting civilians attempting to flee the ISIL-held city of Fallujah prior to the start of a government offensive to retake the city. As of the start of the week, 6 June, 18,000 people have managed to flee from Fallujah and the surrounding area, while another 50,000 remain trapped in the city.

Allegations have arisen that hundreds of civilians may have recently been tortured by Shia militias on their push to retake Fallujah. Local officials have confirmed that militias took roughly 600 people as prisoners in fighting over the previous weekend. The Iraqi government has recently attempted to assure the public against abuses by these militias, announcing the formation of a human rights committee to investigate all allegations.

Iraqi forces uncovered a mass grave containing 400 bodies found to the northwest of Fallujah. The bodies are believed to be those of Iraqi troops captured by ISIL.

On 6 June, bomb blasts across Baghdad killed 23 people. Three separate attacks took place in the north, south, and west of Baghdad, and come in the wake of a separate bombing on Sunday that killed 9 people. On 7 June, 10  people died from a car bomb in the Iraqi city of Karbala. The attack injured a further 25 people in the city, which is one of the holiest to Shi’ite Muslims due to its famed Imam Hussein Shrine. ISIL has claimed responsibility. On Thursday, two suicide-bombings in Baghdad claimedthe lives of 30 people.


Kenya:

On Monday, protests against Kenya’s election body left at least one person dead and others wounded in the city of Kisumu, while others also demonstrated in Nairobi. The next day, Kenya’s government banned all protests against the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC), calling them “unlawful demonstrations.”

On Wednesday, President Kenyatta proposed establishing a bipartisan committee within parliament to consider the issue. At first, opposition leaders rejected the idea, but after talking to church leaders, who have been acting as mediators, the opposition softened its position saying, “We are now saying at least he has recognized the need to discuss IEBC but that alone is not enough.” They also added that if they feel their concerns are not being considered, then protests would recommence.


Libya:

On 9 June, Libyan forces captured the ISIL stronghold city of Sirte. ISIL fighters reportedly shaved off their beards to avoid persecution before retreating from the city. Libyan forces faced little resistance as they pushed into the city of about 5,000 ISIL soldiers. Soldiers celebrated as army tanks pulled into the town’s central Zafarana square, used by ISIL as a podium for public beheadings and killings. Sirte’s capture caps the end of a month-long battle between Libyan military and Islamic State fighters.

In a six point plan, the Head of the UN Support Mission in Libya, Martin Kobler, underlined the need for a unified government in Libya against a common enemy of terrorist groups, such as ISIL.

The EU urged the UN Security Council to adopt a resolution allowing EU naval forces to intercept ships smuggling arms into Libya. EU ships have seized migrant-smuggling ships in the Mediterranean successfully in the past.

In a new interview, Libyan Prime Minister Fayez al-Sarraj welcomed help from the international community in Libya’s fight against terrorism but rejected foreign military intervention. Sarraj stated that foreign intervention would “offend national pride and run contrary to Libya’s principles.”


Nigeria:

The court of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) fined Nigeria $3.25 million on Wednesday for the “barbaric, illegal, and unconstitutional” extrajudicial killings of eight civilians and wounding of 11 other individuals, who were shot by government forces in the capital in 2013. The fine is to be paid to the victims and families in compensation for their losses.

Nigerian authorities have suspended military attacks in the Niger Delta region to allow for talks with oil militants, the Niger Avengers. Thousands have fled the conflict between the military and oil militants in the region. On Wednesday, the Niger Delta Avengers announced via Twitter that it would not negotiate with any committee from the government. The group has also claimed to have blown up a Chevron pipeline near the Dibbi flow station in the Niger Delta, which a local community leader confirmed.


 South Sudan:

On 7 June, the leaders of the two previously warring parties in South Sudan, President Salva Kiir and the newly re-appointed Vice President Riek Machar, released an op-ed in the New York Times calling for the creation of a South African-style truth and reconciliation commission. They further stated that “In contrast to reconciliation, disciplinary justice — even if delivered under international law — would destabilize efforts to unite our nation by keeping alive anger and hatred among the people of South Sudan.” In this regard, they called on the international community to reconsider the establishment of an international tribunal, a key component of the August peace deal. The proposal was rejected by many, with Human Rights Watch calling it a “self-serving attempt to evade justice”.

On 3 June, South Sudanese military intelligence personnel working with the national security service abducted two students at Juba University. The University has served as a hub for those who are critical of the current South Sudanese leadership, with this only being the latest in a series of abductions by security services. Those who are taken tend to be held for at least a month with no access to their families or legal representation. As of yet, the location or charges against the two students are unknown.


Sudan/Darfur:

On 3 June, UNHCR highlighted the plight of people still fleeing from fighting and indiscriminate government attacks in the South Kordofan State of Sudan. This past weekend marked five years since the fighting started in that region. Since that time, over 250,000 refugees have fled to South Sudan from the epicenter of the fighting, the Nuba mountains. 2016 has seen 7,500 new refugees so far.

The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/North (SPLM-N)  acknowledged that the Sudanese government had captured several strategic points in the Jebel Kigu region of the Blue Nile State. However, the SPLM-N also claims to have successfully repelledseveral more recent government assaults last Friday, leading to the death of 25 government soldiers.

Continuing discussions which began last week in Doha, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM-MM) rebel groups held a series of indirect discussion in the Chadian capital, Ndjamena, on how they can join the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD), finally coming to terms of peace with the Sudanese government.

On 5 June, an attack by militiamen on the Sudanese military, in Kutum in North Darfur, killed three Sudanese soldiers.


Syria:

On 4 June, in what is being dubbed the “race for Raqqa”, Syrian government forces crossed into Raqqa province thanks to heavy gains made in an offensive backed by Russian air support. Earlier last week, the US-backed Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) expanded their offensive in the north of Raqqa province to also strike west towards another strategic airbase while simultaneously launching a new offensive on the ISIL-controlled Manbij pocket in northern Aleppo, which if taken would cut off the terrorist group’s main artery for the ebb and flow of foreign fighters. As of Thursday, the SDF had reached the militants last main route in and out of the area. ISIL forces also began retreating from their frontline positions north of Aleppo as rebel groups staged a counter-offensive against the terrorist group.

Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF) asked the Turkish government to open their borders to the steadily growing number of Syrians displaced by the increased fighting in northern Aleppo, on 2 June. Roughly 100,000 Syrians have already been taking shelter from the conflict on the Syrian side of the border in the area and are now trapped due to the uptick in fighting between rebel-forces and ISIL. In the wake of this request, the UN fears that an additional 200,000 Syrians could be displaced by the SDF offensive against the ISIL-held city of Manbij.

On 3 June, in the wake of the US and others beginning to plan airdrops on besieged areas of Syria, the Syrian government has announced they will allow the UN and the Red Cross to bring humanitarian aid overland into at least 11 of 19 previously-designated besieged areas in the month of June. Eight other areas received separate approval for medical and school supplies as well as milk for young children. However, the UN is still calling the current Syrian government’s approved access, to 23 of the 34 areas on the UN’s deliveries list, inadequate.

In a televised speech on Tuesday made before the new Syrian parliament, President Assad promised that the Syrian government would “liberate” every part of Syria and publicly hardened the bargaining stance of his government at the Geneva peace talks, stressing that Syria would be under the leadership of a “unity government” and not a “transitional governing body”.

Sihanouk Dibo, the presidential advisor to the Syrian Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD), on 5 June, made public that they had been invited by UN Envoy Staffan de Mistura to Geneva and will subsequently take part in the next round of peace talks. The talks, colloquially referred to as Geneva III, have so far excluded the PYD due to Turkish security concerns, despite the large amounts of territory the group controls in northern Syria as well as their success against ISIL.

On 5 June, barrel bombs- oil drums or cylinders packed with explosives and shrapnel- killed 53 people in the city of Aleppo. An additional eight people died from rebel shelling of government held areas of the city. These airstrikes come in the wake of others that killed 29 people, some with barrel bombs, at the end of last week as well as an overall tripling of Russian air strikes in Syria that took place over the past several days. Meanwhile, on Monday airstrikes carried out in the ISIL-held town of Al-Asharah, in Deir Ezzor province killed 17 people as they were shopping in a public market on the opening day of Ramadan. Still more airstrikes on Wednesday struck three hospitals in Aleppo, killing 20 people as the government offensive on the city intensifies. This brings the total number of medical facilities targeted in the last two months up to 17, with only 7 hospitals still operating in Aleppo.


Yemen:

Saudi Arabia has refused to accept the findings of a report issued by the UN last week that heavily criticized the Saudi-led coalition in Yemen. On 2 June, U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon put the Saudi-led coalition on the annual blacklist of states and armed groups that violate children’s rights during conflicts, stating that coalition airstrikes were behind 60% (510 in total) of children’s deaths in 2015. The report also blacklisted the Houthi group and forces loyal to the former president Ali Abdullah Saleh.

Nevertheless, after complaints from Saudi officials, the UN took Saudi Arabia off the child blacklist, announcing it would conduct a joint review with the Saudi-led coalition to examine all instances that originally led to Saudi Arabia being placed on the list. Civil society groups, including Human Rights Watch, denounced the removal, with HRW’s children’s rights advocacy director, Jo Becker, stating that “the secretary-general’s decision flies in the face of overwhelming evidence that violations by the Saudi-led coalition have killed and maimed hundreds of children in Yemen.”

On 6 June, the UN envoy to the Yemen peace talks in Kuwait, Ismail Ould Cheikh Ahmed, announced that the Houthi-rebels and Saudi-backed government have both agreed to release all child prisoners. While it is not known how many child prisoner either side is holding, recent reports by Human Rights Watch and UNICEF have condemned both sides for using child soldiers and for the 900 children killed and 1,500 wounded in 2015 alone.

On 4 June, the UN condemned the recent attacks in Taiz which killed 11 people, with the UN Secretary-General Bai Ki-moon reminding all parties to the conflict that that targeting civilian areas is a violation of international humanitarian law.

In accordance with the agreement reached earlier this week, Saudi Arabia has transferred 54 child prisoners, captured in offensives against the Houthi rebels, over to the Yemeni government. The government went on to announce that the children would be quickly freed.


What else is new?

On 3 June, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon released his annual report on children and armed conflict for the year of 2015. The report noted in detail what the Secretary-General called the shocking scale of violations in conflict zones, including Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Syria and Yemen. The report noted that an ever-increasing number of children are finding themselves in situations of conflict and are suffering abuses and violations of their rights. The report further calls upon Member States to make, “as a matter of priority, changes in policies, military procedures and legislation, where necessary, to prevent violations and protect children.” The full report can be found here.

On 24 June, Leeds Beckett University and the University of Leeds will co-host the final workshop in their three year Economic and Social Research Council funded series on the Responsibility to Protect & Prosecute. This workshop will focus on United Nations Reform and RtoP. To find out more about the event and how to attend, please click here.

On 9 June, Minority Rights Group International (MRG) released their annual Peoples Under Threat and Index Map for 2016. The map’s stated purpose it to help identify those populations which are at the greatest risk of genocide, mass political killings or systematic violent repression. The report highlights in particular the relationship between the current refugee crisis and persecution, demonstrating the connection between the two and how it is likely to increase. The Index can be viewed here.


Above photo: Human Rights Watch.”EU: Migrants Seeking Opportunity or Refugees Seeking Protection?”

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#R2P Weekly:7-11 September 2015

Untitled

General Assembly Holds 7th Informal Dialogue on RtoP;  ICRtoP & Partners Hold Event Exploring Priorities for Norm Over Next Decade

Tuesday, 9 September 2015, UN Member States gathered to discuss the Secretary-General’s latest report on the Responsibility to Protect, “A Vital and Enduring Commitment: Implementing the Responsibility to Protect.” (Read a summary of the report here.)

Sixty-nine Member States spoke on behalf of 91 governments, with one regional organization (the EU) also participating. Several civil society organizations gave interventions, including the ICRtoP and three of its members (the Global, Asia-Pacific, and Canadian Centres for RtoP). Thirty delegations called for the Security Council to not block resolutions aimed at preventing or responding to atrocity crimes by welcoming either the ACT Code of Conduct or the French and Mexico political declaration. At least 16 states, as well as the Group of Friends of RtoP, showed support for a General Assembly resolution on the ten-year anniversary of the norm, while 26 others welcomed and encouraged the expansion of the R2P Focal Points initiative.

fadiICRtoP Steering Committee Member Fadi Abi Allam of Permanent Peace Movement (Lebanon) delivered a statement on behalf of the ICRtoP. The ICRtoP emphasized the need to further show how RtoP relates to other sectors; urged the Security Council to better assume its RtoP by not blocking resolutions designed to prevent or respond to atrocities; and called for the General Assembly to adopt a resolution on the ten-year anniversary of the norm.

Check back next week for a full summary of the dialogue.

The day after the dialogue, the ICRtoP, the Stanley Foundation, and the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung held an event titled “The Responsibility to Protect at Ten: Perspectives and Opportunities.” The purpose of the event was to focus on opportunities to further mainstream RtoP within other sectors and enhance capacity for addressing new civilian protection challenges.

Dr. Jennifer Welsh, the UN Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect, delivered introductory remarks, in which she reflected on key themes of the General Assembly dialogue and noted areas of opportunity for implementing RtoP in the future.

Other speakers included Erin Mooney, Senior Protection Adviser for the UN and ProCap, who spoke on how protection assistance for the displaced and refugees could be enhanced through implementing RtoP; Alex Hiniker, UN representative of PAX, who provided ideas on how disarmament/arms control initiatives and RtoP could work together to protect populations; and Alex Bellamy, Director of the Asia-Pacific Centre for RtoP, who discussed how measures to counter violent extremism could impact atrocities prevention and response.

The ICRtoP and its co-sponsors will soon produce a full report on the event.


Catch up on developments in…

Burma/Myanmar
Burundi
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Gaza
Iraq
Kenya
Libya

Nigeria
South Sudan
Sudan/Darfur
Syria
Ukraine
Yemen
Other


Burma/Myanmar:

Human Rights Watch urged the government to publicly condemn the Border and Security Affairs Minister of the Mandalay Region Parliamentarian, Dr. Myint Kyu, who spoke out against gay men and transgender women and called on police to arrest them. The Burmese election campaign began on Tuesday and excluded Muslim candidates from the ballot while wiping an estimated 500,000 Rohingya from the voter list.


Burundi:

Patrice Gahungu, the spokesperson for the opposition party Union for Peace and Development (UPD) – Zigamibanga, was assassinated on Monday evening in Bujumbura.The Chairman of the UPD was murdered earlier this year.

Burundi, whose budget is 52 percent donor funded, formally received notifications that aid from European countries, the United States, and various key aid agencies would be suspended. Meanwhile, early in his controversial third term, reports are emerging that President Pierre Nkurunziza is deepening ties with the governments of China and Russia.


Central African Republic:

The UN established a “weapons-free zone” in Bambari to protect civilians from militant groups involved in inter-religious clashes, which have killed more than 10 people in the month of August and have displaced more than 800,000 people during  two years of violence.


Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Ahead of upcoming presidential elections, the United Nations Joint Human Rights Office (UNJHRO) stated that human rights violations by DRC authorities are increasing, with journalists and activists being targeted specifically.


Gaza:

The United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process, Nickolay Mladenov, urged all Palestinian leaders and factions to use the postponement of the Palestine National Council meeting to take constructive steps towards achieving unity. Though the meeting of the Council was scheduled to take place next week in Ramallah, a new date has not yet been set for what will be the first gathering of the Council in nearly 20 years.


Iraq:

After the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) resumed its armed campaign against Turkey by targeting police and military officers and killing more than 100 people in the past 50 days, Turkey deployed ground forces and launched a wave of airstrikes into Iraq to pursue Kurdish militants in the first such action since the 2013 Kurdish-Turkey ceasefire.


Kenya:

The International Criminal Court on Thursday announced public arrest warrants against Paul Gicheru and Philip Kipkoech Bett on accusations of “corruptly influencing witnesses” in the case against Kenyan deputy Prime Minister, William Ruto, for crimes against humanity.


Libya:

The General National Congress (GNC) called for a regional conference to deal with the “migrant” influx crisis. UN Special Representative for Libya, Bernardino Leon, reported that the talks aimed at uniting Libya’s two warring governments are entering the last round and that there is hope of signing a deal by 20 September. Later in the week, Bernardino Leon met ten leaders from each of Libya’s three historic provinces in Cairo, then headed back to Morocco for final talks aimed at naming the prime minister and two deputy prime ministers to head the new Government of National Accord.


Mali:

Malian Special Forces arrested three jihadi suspects after recent attacks against MINUSMA. Despite the signing of a peace deal in June, ongoing conflict in northern Mali and consequent insecurity has increasingly threatened the livelihood of millions. UNOCHA reported that an estimated 3.1 million people are considered to be “food insecure” and roughly 54,000 people are without adequate access to potable water.


Nigeria:

The Nigerian military arrested a number of suspects who were caught allegedly carrying fuel and drugs for Boko Haram in Yobe state. IOM released its 5th Displacement Tracking Matrix, which reported an increase in internally displaced people to over 2.1 million from  the 1.3 million recorded in June. IOM attributed the increase to the intensification of attacks by insurgents in the north.


South Sudan:

The South Sudanese parliament warned that it would reject the recently agreed to Compromise Peace Agreement if it were found to violate national sovereignty; however, when tabled later in the week, the parliament unanimously voted to adopt the deal.


Sudan/Darfur:

ICRtoP member Human Rights Watch released a report stating that the Sudanese government’s Rapid Support Forces (RSF), has gone on two episodes of killings and mass rape of civilians in dozens of Darfur villages since February of last year. HRW urged the government to end RSF atrocities and bring those responsible to justice; the abuses have found to be widespread, varying, and systematic against civilian populations and may constitute crimes against humanity. HRW also underscored that existing peacekeeping forces have not fully carried out their mandate of protecting civilians and have seldom released public reports or comprehensive documentation on abuses against civilians during any RSF counterinsurgency campaigns.

Judges at the ICC asked South African authorities to account for their failure to arrest Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir this summer during his travels to the country.


Syria:

Syrian rebel militants from a coalition of mainly Islamist groups, including the al-Nusra front,seized key Abu al-Duhur airbase in north-western Idlib province after a two year siege.

Amnesty International reported that the Democratic Union Party (PYD)-led autonomous administration in northern Syria has been unlawfully detaining and unfairly trying peaceful critics and civilians believed to be sympathizers or members of alleged terrorist groups.

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon admitted that the UN Security Council is failing Syria due to power divisions preventing action to end the conflict. He said that Russia and China should “look beyond national interest” and stop blocking Security Council action on the conflict in Syria. Additionally, the United Nations Special Envoy on Syria, Staffan de Mistura, called for “a real discussion” to end the conflict in Syria.

After the United States and NATO warned Russia over its involvement in the Syrian conflict, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov confirmed that humanitarian aid flights to Syria also carry military equipment. Separately, Lavrov stated that Russian military advisers have been in Syria, but that their presence has been a part of a longstanding agreement to provide the country with military aid.


Ukraine:

UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, declared that nearly 8,000 people have lost their lives in eastern Ukraine since mid-April 2014, as he released the 11th report by the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine. The report states that the number of civilian casualties more than doubled this past month, in comparison with the previous three months.

The Ukrainian government, though not a member of the International Criminal Court, voluntarily accepted the jurisdiction of the ICC backdated to early 2014 and accused “senior officials of the Russian Federation” and rebel leaders of committing atrocities during the annexation of Crimea and fighting in eastern Ukraine.


Yemen:

Around 1,000 soldiers from Qatar’s Armed Forces, more than 200 armored vehicles, and 30 Apache combat helicopters deployed to Yemen as part of the Saudi-led coalition’s fight against Houthi rebels. War planes from the coalition bombed the capital of Sanaa in the largest attack on the city in over five months.

UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, Stephen O’Brien, released an emergency fund of $15 million to help alleviate the “almost incomprehensible” scale of human suffering in Yemen, where four out of five people are lacking the most basic survival items such as clean water, food, fuel and medicines. In addition, the Secretary-General and members of the Security Council strongly condemned the suicide attack of September 2 against a mosque in the northern Jarraf district of Sana’a in Yemen that killed 30 and injured 100.


What else is new?

In a new analysis for the International Peace Institute’s Global Observatory, the Asia Pacific Center for the R2P’s Alex Bellamy highlighted that “one of the most straightforward and effective measures that could be adopted in fulfillment of RtoP is the provision of safe passage and asylum to those fleeing” the Syrian conflict.

ICRtoP member International Crisis Group released a report detailing how the rise of Christian and Muslim fundamentalist movements in Cameroon is rapidly changing the religious landscape and paving the way for religious intolerance.

International Crisis Group also issued a conflict alert for Nepal, stating that  protests against a draft constitution have left 23 dead and hundreds injured in Nepal in two weeks.

War crimes prosecutors in Serbia charged eight people over the 1995 Srebrenica massacre in Bosnia. This is the first time that a court in Serbia has charged anyone over the massacre of 8,000 Bosnian Muslim men and boys by Bosnian-Serb forces.


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#R2P Weekly:31 August- 4 September 2015

Untitled34 Civil Society Organizations Urge Support for the ACT “Code of Conduct regarding Security Council action against genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes”

Excellency,

On behalf of the undersigned civil society organizations, we are writing to request your government’s explicit support for the new “Code of Conduct regarding Security Council action against genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes.”

Over the past few years, the world has witnessed an intolerable rise in the commission of atrocities against civilians. Populations from Syria to the Central African Republic to South Sudan, to name but a few, suffer daily from the very same crimes that the international community has repeatedly vowed to prevent.

At such a moment of global instability, expectations have grown for preventive, timely, and decisive action by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), as the UN organ primarily tasked with the maintenance of international peace and security. The UNSC has indeed exerted leadership by taking recent action on a number of situations of atrocity crimes.

However, due to the veto power wielded irresponsibly by its Permanent Members, the UNSC has failed to adopt similarly strong measures in other cases where these crimes are imminent or occurring, for example in Syria, Palestine, Myanmar, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Vetoing resolutions that attempt to prevent or respond to atrocities makes it difficult for the international community to uphold its Responsibility to Protect (RtoP, R2P), a landmark norm unanimously endorsed in the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document. Under RtoP, States and the international community agreed that they had an obligation to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and ethnic cleansing.

(…)

Read the full letter and list of signatories here. To read the ACT Code of Conduct, click here (also available in French and Spanish).


Catch up on developments in…

Burma/Myanmar
Burundi
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Gaza
Iraq
Kenya
Libya

Nigeria
South Sudan
Sudan/Darfur
Syria
Yemen
Other


Burma/Myanmar:

The UN Refugee Agency warned of an expected surge before monsoon season of mostly Rohinghya and Bangladeshi refugees heading for Southeast Asia. On Monday, President Thein Sein signed into law the Monogamy Bill, the last of four controversial bills criticized by rights groups for discriminating against the country’s Muslim minority.

Asia and the Pacific Policy Society publishedWill Myanmar be the World’s Next Mass Atrocity?, by United to End Genocide’s Daniel P Sullivan, which warns that attacks against Rohingya Muslims are likely to escalate ahead of the November election.


Burundi:

The head of Burundi’s parliament accused an unnamed East African country of sheltering an insurgency that has carried out attacks since President Pierre Nkurunziza announced his third term bid. Anti-government protests resumed in the capital after residents accused the police of harassment, stemming from the disarming of Bujumbura neighborhoods amid political tensions surrounding the president’s controversial re-election this summer.


Central African Republic:

An anti-Balaka militia in CAR released 163 previously enslaved children this weekend. Though welcome, this is in fact only a partial fulfillment of a UN-brokered deal, as it is speculated that 6,000 children have been captured by the group. UNHCR indicated that several thousand people have been forcibly displaced from renewed violence in the Bambari region.

The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein, announced an additional allegation of sexual abuse against a member of the French military force in the CAR. The girl was believed to be in her mid to late teens and she gave birth to the child in April.


Democratic Republic of the Congo:

The trial of former Congolese rebel leader Bosco Ntganda began this week at the International Criminal Court. Ntaganda is wanted for 13 counts of war crimes and 5 counts of crimes against humanity in the DRC. At the opening of his trial,  which marks the first time that a militia leader faces charges for sexual and gender-based violence committed against child soldiers under his command, he pled not guilty to all 18 charges.

MONUSCO reported that more than 100 child soldiers were able to escape and deserted their positions with the Front for Patriotic Resistance in Ituri (FPRI) during clashes between the FPRI and government forces. Six soldiers were killed in the North Kivu province of the DRC.


Gaza:

The UN published a report warning that the Gaza strip could become “uninhabitable” by 2020. The Israeli military claimed an attack on a Hamas military position in Gaza, in response to Hamas gunfire on homes in Netiv Haasara in southern Israel.


Iraq:

Suspected ISIL attacks on commercial areas around Baghdad left at least 11 civilians dead and 28 wounded. The United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI) reported that during the month of August, 1,325 people (585 civilians) were killed and over 1,811 people (1,103 civilians) injured from terrorism, violence and armed conflict in the country.

The UN Security Council condemned the use of sexual violence in Iraq and Syria as a “tactic of war” and urged all parties to the conflicts to take feasible steps to prevent and protect civilians from such acts.


Libya:

The UN Special Envoy for Libya, Bernardino Leon, met with leaders of the Tripoli based unrecognized government, the General National Congress (GNC) and said he hopes a draft agreement on forming a national unity government can be finalized in coming weeks. The GNC announced their intention to take part in the peace talks on Wednesday, just before they began in Geneva on Thursday. At the talks, the envoys from the GNC declared their optimism that a deal creating a unity government could be reached, on the condition that a draft accord is modified first. The two Libyan government parties will soon present their candidates for Prime Minister and two deputies to lead such a national unity government.


Mali:

Unidentified gunmen killed two Malian soldiers on Tuesday in an attack at a checkpoint on the outskirts of Timbuktu. The attack fuels concerns at simmering violence after the breakdown in the UN peace deal signed in June between the government and rival armed groups.


Nigeria:

Boko Haram attacked Baanu village, killing 56 people, during a meeting with the parents of the 219 girls abducted by the group back in 2014. Further attacks from Boko Haram took place in the Northeast, killing an estimated total of 80 people over the weekend. Since the inauguration of President Buhari at the end of May, more than 1,000 lives have been lost to deadly Boko Haram ambushes and the use of suicide bombers.The Nigerian intelligence agency reported the spread of Boko Haram into Nigeria’s biggest city of Lagos, warning that a dozen members of Boko Haram had been seen and apprehended in the city since July.


South Sudan:

Rebels and government actors accused each other on Sunday of not abiding by the ceasefire, just hours after it came into effect. The South Sudanese military called for IGAD, the eight nation regional bloc who helped bring about the ceasefire, to monitor the area and compliance with the peace agreement.

The UN Security Council threatened sanctions against “any party” who does not respect the peace deal agreed to last week. A UN panel of experts warned the Security Council that the violence will likely continue in South Sudan, even if battling parties agree to end the conflict. The panel also urged the Security Council to impose an arms embargo on South Sudan and to place sanctions on those in the position to perpetuate or cease the ongoing conflict.

The World Food Program reported that approximately 4.6 million people in South Sudan are struggling with severe food insecurity and that aid convoys are often restricted by local authorities. Since independence, the South Sudanese economy has continually declined, and over 10,000 people have been killed with more than 1.6 million displaced.


Sudan/Darfur:

President Omar Al-Bashir visited China on Monday, defying calls by various international human rights organizations to arrest him for crimes against humanity. China is a permanent member of the Security Council which referred the case to the ICC, but is not itself a party to the Rome statute.

The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) Monitor, published by the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), noted that South Sudan spent roughly 30 million dollars last year on machine guns, grenade launchers, and other weapons from China, along with Russian armored vehicles and Israeli rifles and attack helicopters.


Syria:

A van filled with explosives was detonated in front of a school on the outskirts of Latakia, killing at least 10 people and injuring 25. The UN confirmed, although Syria’s head of antiquities denied, that ISIL militants had destroyed the Temple of Baal in the second attack this week on the ancient city of Palmyra.

The International Red Cross reported that water has become a “weapon of war” in Syria, with civilians undergoing extreme suffering due to deliberate cuts to water and electricity supplies in Aleppo. UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, Stephen O’Brien, warnedthat 1 million people have been displaced by violence in 2015 alone and that the humanitarian crisis could yet worsen if a political solution is not found.

ICRtoP member, International Crisis Group, published a new report arguing that a significant but realistic U.S. policy shift on deterring regime airstrikes represents the best chance of reaching a political settlement in Syria.

The Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic released its 10th report, which details how civilians have been specifically targeted by one or more of the warring parties, often on aspects of their identity. Additionally, the report condemns the failure of the international community to assist civilians fleeing the war-torn country, calls for all parties and states to work to resolve the conflict, and urges the Security Council to “open a path to justice.”


Yemen:

At least 31 people were killed by a pro-government airstrike which hit a bottling plant in the northern province of Hajjah. According to the UN, almost 4,500 people have died since the Saudi-led pro-government coalition began its campaign in March. A suicide attack and subsequent car bomb, detonated near a Zaidi mosque in the rebel-held Yemeni capital of Sanaa, resulted in the death of at least 20 people. Unknown gunmen shot dead two Yemeni Red Cross aid workers in northern Yemen as they were travelling from a mission in the city of Saada to the organization’s main office in the capital.

The UN OCHA’s latest crisis update reported that at least 95 civilians were killed and 129 injured between 14 and 27 August from indiscriminate airstrikes and shelling. OCHA additionally stated that militants violated international law when they forced all 80 patients out of the Yemen International Hospital in Taiz after seizing the facility.

The UN OHCHR described the humanitarian situation in Yemen as “untenable” and that the increase in the number of civilian casualties in the Taiz province is alarming.The OHCHR reiterated its concern regarding the near collapse of the healthcare system in Taiz, as all six public hospitals in the area are no longer operational. Save The Children and Medecins Sans Frontieres also warned that major hospitals in Taiz and Sanaa are struggling to function due to supply shortages caused by the ongoing conflict and a blockade by pro-government forces.

Human Rights Watch reported that Southern armed groups and Houthi forces have committed serious abuses against civilians and fighters in their custody. Southern militants have summarily executed at least seven Houthi prisoners since March and Houthi rebels have unlawfully detained and mistreated civilians.


What else is new?

The Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect welcomed Rwanda as the 50th state to join the Global Network of R2P Focal Points. Meanwhile, the EU became the first regional organization to appoint a Focal Point.

ICRtoP member, Coordinadora Regional de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales (CRIES),  published their latest edition of Pensamiento Propio,  Latin America and the Responsibility to Protect: Divergent views from the South?

Russia rejected a proposal from France for permanent members to refrain from using their veto when action is required to address mass atrocities.


 

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#R2P Weekly:17-21 August 2015

UntitledThe UN Security Council and the Responsibility Not to Veto

 

When resolutions on crises where genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and/or ethnic cleansing are imminent or ongoing come before the Security Council’s agenda, Permanent Members should not obstruct united action to protect populations from atrocity crimes.The recent vetoes in the Security Council on resolutions pertaining to Syria and Srebrenica have reinvigorated efforts in this regard. Click on the infographic to the right for a brief overview on these current initiatives, which will enhance the Council’s ability to uphold its Responsibility to Protect.

Catch up on developments in…

Burma/Myanmar
Burundi
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Gaza
Iraq
Kenya
Libya

Nigeria
South Sudan
Sudan/Darfur
Syria
Yemen
Other


Burma/Myanmar:

The president ordered an extension on the state of emergency for the Kokang region of the Shan state until 17 November. The state of emergency began mid-February when fighting erupted between government troops and ethnic Chinese rebels, forcing tens of thousands to flee. The area will remain under military control during the November 8 election.
 
The Karen National Union (KNU) announced that it will sign the National Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) with the Myanmar government. Human rights watch argued that the targeted arrests of land rights activists in the Karen state are the newest form of political prisoners. 


Burundi:

The opposition in Burundi called on Nkurunziza to step down by 26 August, the last day of his current mandate. However, President Nkurunzizia was sworn in during a surprise ceremony for a third term on Thursday.
 
Four civilians were killed on Tuesday night in Bujumbura in an apparent revenge attack against members of the ruling party. The UN Secretary- General Ban Ki-moon condemned the assassination of Burundi’s former Army Chief of Staff, Colonel Jean Bikomagu, by unknown assailants on 15 August, which marked the second attack on a senior official in Burundi this month.
 
OHCHR reported that at least 96 people have been killed in Burundi since the outbreak of violence in April. The AU warned that Burundi is at risk of deteriorating into further violence. 


Central African Republic:

New rape allegations against members of a MINUSCA military contingent were raised  on 12 August. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Parfait Onanga-Anyanga of Gabon as the new head of MINUSCA. Associated Press reported that France is considering withdrawing more of its troops from the CAR. 


Democratic Republic of the Congo:

A government spokesperson announced that 34 people have been charged with crimes, including genocide, murder and rape in connection with ethnic violence in the southeast.

Following the numerous allegations of child abuse by MINUSCA peacekeepers in the CAR, MONUSCO launched a campaign prevent sexual abuse by its peacekeepers, displaying the words “Sex with children is a crime”. Martin Kolber, the head of MINUSCA, declared that the mission must work to withdraw from the country.
 
The Enough Project announced that over 140 mines in the DRC are now conflict-free.


Gaza:

Palestinian refugees protested against cuts by UNRWA, which the UN agency states are due to a lack of funding. However, many of the refugees believe the cuts are politically-motivated.

Reportedly, preparations have been made for a senior Hamas delegation to travel to Egypt for ceasefire talks with Israel, with accounts that a long-term ceasefire is under negotiation between the parties. 


Iraq:

ISIL claimed responsibility for last Thursday’s attack on a crowded market in Sadr City, which killed at least 67 people and injured 200 others.

The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, OPCW, announced it would inquire into allegations of possible uses of chemical weapons by ISIL in Iraq against Kurdish fighters.

The U.S. and its coalition allies claimed they had conducted 22 air strikes against ISIL militants in Iraq and Syria over a 24-hour period.


Kenya:

The ICC Appeals Chamber ordered judges to reconsider whether Kenya failed to cooperate with the Court regarding the case against President Uhuru Kenyatta.


Libya:

In Sirte, at least 25 people were killed, during clashes between ISIL’s affiliate in Libya and a rival Islamist group back by armed civilians. Fighting broke out after the ISIL affiliate killed a senior Muslim cleric who had refused to comply with ISIL’s orders for residents to pledge allegiance or face death. Other reports stated that at least 106 people were killed over the three days of fighting between ISIL loyalists and local tribesmen in Sirte.

The internationally-recognized government in Libya (HoR) appealed to fellow Arab states to conduct air strikes against ISIL in Sirte. The spokesman of Libya’s HoR, Prime Minister Abdullah al-Thani, announced that he has withdrawn his offer to resign his post, stating that the resignation would have added to the chaos in the country.


Mali:

Over the weekend, violence erupted between armed groups in the Kidal region, breaking the ceasefire agreement.The pro-government Gatia militia claimed to have killed at least 20 separatists during the fighting. After three days of clashes, MINUSMA secured the town of Kidal and set up a security zone to curb the fighting. However,the CMA asked MINUSMA to immediately remove the security zone and “let the parties settle their differences.” 

The UN warned of a new hunger crisis in Mali, with more than 715,000 children at risk of acute malnutrition.


Nigeria:

Over the weekend, violence erupted between armed groups in the Kidal region, breaking the ceasefire agreement.The pro-government Gatia militia claimed to have killed at least 20 separatists during the fighting. After three days of clashes, MINUSMA secured the town of Kidal and set up a security zone to curb the fighting. However,the CMA asked MINUSMA to immediately remove the security zone and “let the parties settle their differences.” 

The UN warned of a new hunger crisis in Mali, with more than 715,000 children at risk of acute malnutrition.


South Sudan:

Last Friday, OCHA reported that the month-long restrictions on the movement of goods by air and river routes in South Sudan had been lifted, allowing delivery of aid supplies to Malakal.

President Salva Kiir declined to sign an IGAD-brokered peace deal by the 17 August deadline, requesting an additional 15 days to review its provisions. The government spokespersoncalled the deal a “sell-out” for the people of South Sudan. Rebel leader Riek Machar did sign the deal, which mandates the demilitarization of Juba; gives the rebel forces 40% share of government positions in Unity, Upper Nile, and Jonglei and 33% in the central administration; and includes language on establishing a court to try violations of national and international law.  

In response to Kiir’s failure to sign the accord, the US circulated a draft resolution to the Security Council containing provisions for increased sanctions and an arms embargo in South Sudan. Under the draft resolution, if Kiir does not sign the agreement by 1 September, an arms embargo and increased targeted sanctions would go into effect on 6 September for a period of 1 year. The draft also includes language on accountability, calling for the Secretary-General to provide resources for the establishment of a hybrid court for South Sudan and report back to the Council on progress in this regard in 3 months. Should the Council decide there has been insufficient progress on the hybrid court or more broadly on the promotion of “accountability for the gravest offenses,” the Security Council retains the option of referring the situation in South Sudan to the ICC.
 
However, despite this draft resolution, reports have emerged that Kiir has told John Kerry, U.S. Secretary of State, that he will sign the peace deal after “a couple more days of consultation.”


Sudan/Darfur:

The non-signatory rebel groups to the Doha Document for Peace and Development, together with the acting chief of the African Union United Nations Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) agreed to work together for a viable and lasting negotiated settlement in order to end the 12-year conflict in the western Sudan region. Reconciliation efforts between the Fellata and Salamat tribes in South Darfur are underway after clashes last week left 54 dead and 29 wounded.


Syria:

On Sunday, a series of government airstrikes killed over 110 people and injured more than 300 in a marketplace in Douma near Damascus. Stephen O’brien, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, condemned the attack and conveyed that he is “horrified by the total disrespect for civilian life in this conflict.”

A suicide bomber killed at least 10 members of Kurdish security forces and 6 civilians in an attack claimed by ISIL. Meanwhile, more than 40 people were killed and wounded in an explosion of a booby-trapped vehicle near an Asyish post in the city of al- Qameshli.
 
The UNSC approved a Presidential Statement backing preparatory talks for a resolution to Syria’s political crisis. The statement supported UN mediator Staffan De Mistura’s plan to work towards “political negotiations and a political transition” based on the Geneva Communique, adopted in 2012 by the first international conference on the issue and endorsed by the Security Council.
 
A ceasefire established between Syrian rebels and pro-government forces in two Shia villages near the Turkish border and a Sunni town near the Lebanese border has collapsed. The ceasefire was agreed last week to allow passage of food and medical supplies to rebel forces in Zabadani and government forces in Fuaa and Kafraya in the northwest.


Yemen:

A new op-ed by the UN Special Advisers on Genocide Prevention and RtoP reminded the parties to the conflict, the media, and the international community of their RtoP in Yemen.
 
Over the weekend, pro-government forces recaptured Zinjibar from Houthi rebels, killing at least 19 people and injuring 150 others during the fight. Pro-government fighters additionallyseized six districts in the central province of Ibb, as they make their way closer to the currently Houthi-controlled city of Sana’a.
The ICRC president, Peter Maurer, determined the situation in Yemen to be ‘catastrophic’ on his visit to Sana’a. UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food warned that the deliberate starvation of civilians could constitute a war crime and/or crime against humanity. A new report by UNICEF announced that an average of eight children per day are being killed or maimedevery day in Yemen.
 
Amnesty International released a new report detailing the impact on civilians of Saudi Arabia-led coalition airstrikes and attacks by pro and anti-Huthi armed groups in Ta’iz and Aden, saying that such violations of human rights could amount to war crimes.

Twenty three NGOs, including four ICRtoP members, published a statement on the need for the Human Rights Council to establish a Commission of Inquiry in Yemen.  


What else is new?

 The Global Policy Initiative of Columbia University released a report of their April 2015 conference “Responsibility While Protecting: Implementation and the Future of the Responsibility to Protect.”

The Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace wrote an article in the Phnom Penh Post urging Cambodia to take the lead in mainstreaming RtoP within ASEAN.


 

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