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#R2PWeekly: 11-15 November


This week in focus:

Accountability for Atrocities for Burma

On Monday, The Gambia filed a case against Burma at the International Court of Justice (ICJ), alleging that the state violated its obligation under the Prevention of Genocide Convention. The actions against the Rohingya population have largely been considered genocidal based on multiple sources of inquiry and analysis conducted, notably the UN-Commissioned Independent International Fact Finding Mission (FFM) on Myanmar. It is on these grounds, The Gambia, on behalf of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation of Islamic, argues that Burma failed in its responsibility to prevent and punish genocidal acts. The culture of impunity around the Burmese Military, also known as the Tatmadaw, continues despite international pressure and outcry for the campaign carried out against the Rohingya people in August 2017, and is part of the motivation of the Gambian government, whose Attorney General and Minister of Justice, Abubaccar M. Tambadou, said, “it is a shame for our generation that we do nothing while genocide is unfolding right under our own eyes.”

A Q&A Factsheet that addresses the ICJ case can be found here.

In addition to the measures filed by the Gambian Ministry of Justice, on Thursday, 14 November, the International Criminal Court (ICC) Pre-Trial Chamber III authorized the office of the Prosecutor to open an investigation into “the Situation in the People’s Republic of Bangladesh/Republic of the Union of Myanmar.” Though Burma is not party to the ICC, last year the Court ruled that it had jurisdiction over the alleged widespread and systematic crimes against the Rohingya could amount to crimes against humanity of deportation. With this decision, the Prosecutor will now be able to begin collecting evidence to establish criminal responsibility in the situation, which may take “as long as needed,” before issuing arrest warrants should sufficient evidence be found. The ICC must rely on States Party to the Rome Statute to uphold their legal obligations and cooperate with the Court in the investigation in order to ensure the accountability measures are used to their fullest extent.

***Please note that the RtoP Weekly will be published intermittently through the end of 2019. Thank you!***


Photo via The Gambia Ministry of Justice

What to Watch:

Gaza: Islamic Jihad offers Israel truce as Gaza toll hits 26 (Rueters)
This week tensions in Gaza and Israel peaked, resulting in violence after Israeli forces killed an Islamic Jihad senior commissioner. In addition to attacks reaching as far as Tel Aviv, Israel launched several rockets into Gaza, resulting in the most civilian casualties since the war between Israel and Hamas in 2014. A ceasefire, announced Thursday morning, appeared to be holding at the time of writing.

Iraq: Security Forces Attack Medics Treating Protesters (Human Rights Watch)
Human Rights Watch reports that Iraqi security forces are targeting medical personnel providing services to injured protesters, violating international humanitarian law.

Venezuela: ‘Harmonized’ plan launched to support millions of Venezuelan refugees and migrants (UN News)
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, and the International Organization on Migration (IOM) launched a joint initiative to address the displacement resulting from the instability in Venezuela. The initiative aims to promote the peaceful integration of refugee populations throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, assisting hosting states and communities with legal protect, social service support including health and education, as well as economic development.

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Filed under Burma, Gaza and the West Bank, genocide, ICRtoP Members, International Criminal Court, Iraq, Israel, Myanmar, Uncategorized, Venezuela, Weekly Round-Up

RtoP Weekly: 28 October – 8 November

This week in focus:

The US Recognizes the Armenian Genocide

Amidst the ongoing conflict and complications in Turkey and Northeast Syria as a result of the United States’ troop withdrawal, the House of Representatives passed a measure recognizing the Turkish state’s mass killings of ethnic Armenians as genocide. The killings, occurring during World War I, have long been denied this classification, and represent a shift and milestone in US-Turkish relations. The vote by the House speaks towards the cooling of relationship of the two counties, but as a form of condemnation of President Trump’s actions, which enabled ethnic violence against the Kurdish population in Turkey, where atrocities allegedly occurred.

Memorialization of atrocities is one way in which a population can be aided in its rebuilding process, and learning from those events serves as a way to maintain peaceful and inclusive societies, preventing the recurrence of future atrocities. Such recognition not only strengthens the memories and histories that serve as the basis for the global call of “never again,” but create an example of properly labeling atrocities as such, allowing the international community to better recognize and react to these events in the future. When the RtoP community looks at the norm, prevention is typically the primary area of focus, but these events are cyclical: rebuilding and incorporating legal and social protections and inclusion is an important prevention activity as well.

To learn more about the Armenian Genocide, check out the ICRtoP infographic.

Below: The Syrian Constitutional Committee meets in Geneva. Photo from Al-Jazeera [Dursun Aydemir/Anadolu]

Syrian ConCOmm

What to Watch:

South Sudan: South Sudan rival leaders delay forming coalition government  (Washington Post)
On 7 November, South Sudanese leaders, President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Dr. Riek Machar announced a 100 day delay in the formation of a coalition government. The deadline, originally agreed upon in the peace accords, was initially set for next week. Complications arose, however when Machar said he was unwilling to join such a government, in part blaming broken ceasefire agreements. This announcement brought uncertainty and doubt about the full implementation of the peace agreement that aims to pull the country out of its protracted state of conflict. International actors as well as the African Union expressed concern over the recurrence of violence should the deal fail.

Syria: German Federal Prosecutor charges former high-ranking Assad government official with more than 4,000 cases of torture (European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights)
By charging a Syrian official with 4000 counts of torture, Germany’s Federal Prosecutor is taking steps to holding members of the Assad regime accountable for crimes, which some believe may amount to atrocities. This is the first case, globally about torture in Syria, setting a worldwide precedent over accountability measures for the crimes committed during the Civil War.

Meanwhile, government, opposition officials, and members of civil society are in Geneva, and began negotiations for a new Constitution. The committee is comprised of 150 members who have the task of reforming the country’s government document before submitting it to a vote among the Syrian population.

But Also Don’t Miss:

Asia Pacific: Asia Pacific Regional Outlook
Asia Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect produced its quarterly report on the region, highlighting concerns in Burma, West Papua, Indonesia, Xianjian, China, and Papua New Guinea.

Burundi/Tanzania: Asylum Seekers Coerced into Going Home
Tanzania forced Burundian asylum seekers back despite reminders of its obligations under international law.

Cameroon: Nearly two million Cameroonians face humanitarian emergency: UNICEF
UNICEF reports 1.9million are now in need of humanitarian assistance in the Anglophone regions as a result of the increased instability.

CAR: Briefing: In Central African Republic, rebels fight on as peace deal falters
Violence in areas of CAR continues, despite the peace agreement, illustrating the need for accountability.

DRC: Bosco Ntaganda sentenced to 30 years for crimes in DR Congo
The International Criminal Court sentenced Bosco Ntaganda to 30 years for crimes against humanity and war crimes.

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Filed under African Union, Asia Pacific, Burundi, Cameroon, CARcrisis, DRC, genocide, ICRtoP Members, International Criminal Court, Rebuilding, South Sudan, Syria, Uncategorized, United States, Weekly Round-Up

#R2PWeekly: 14-25 October


This week in focus:
Ensuring the Inclusion of Young Women in
Conflict and Atrocity Prevention

As the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) Agenda marks its 20th anniversary in 2020, international action to include women’s perspectives, needs, and work in prevention efforts remains limited, and current prevention initiatives have yet to develop and integrate their gender analysis capabilities. Without adequate consideration of the unique ways women experience conflict and atrocities, many crises remain off and fail to make the UNSC agenda. In order to ensure its effectiveness, the accountability framework on WPS needs to draw from and strengthen the work of women of all ages. This is particularly crucial for young women who often have less access to prevention spaces at national, regional, and institutional levels, but play crucial roles in their local communities.

The International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect (ICRtoP), the Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC), Cordaid, WO=MEN Dutch Gender Platform, and Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung New York, along with the Permanent Mission of Germany to the UN,  will convene a side event to amplify and assess opportunities for strengthening young women’s role in prevention. The event will provide an open space to share practical experiences, including successes, key challenges, and recommendations on sustained leadership of young women in conflict and atrocity prevention at the local level.

To read the full concept note, please click here.

WPS event logo

What to Watch:

Sudan: Sudan Talks Delayed After Attacks in Nuba Mountains (VOA)
Last week, South Sudan played host to the peace talks between the newly established Sudanese transitional government and SPLM-North affiliates in Juba, South Sudan. The transitional peace agreement in Sudan stipulates that the government in Khartoum has six months to make peace with armed groups and factions. According to SPLM-North leaders, military attacks took place in the Nuba Mountains over the past 10 days, adding they would not continue negotiations until hostilities and military aggression were ceased. The transitional agreement, signed a few months ago, contains trust-building measures and a cease-fire agreement in order to bring about a democratic and civilian-led government in Sudan.

Syria: Turkey, Russia Reach Deal To Control Syrian Areas Once Patrolled By The U.S. (NPR)
Turkey’s President Erdogan and Russia’s President Putin reached an agreement on territorial control and ceasefire in Syria after the US announced its withdrawal of troops a few weeks ago. As a result of the ceasefire, US President Trump removed sanctions against Turkish officials, a move many consider to be impunity for military action conducted in the region. The withdrawal of US forces resulted in days of increased conflict, impacting Kurdish forces guarding ISIL troops, civilians, and humanitarian actors, during which UN officialsUS state actors, and civil society organizations noted the serious implications of the Administration’s decision, urging for the respect of human rights, humanitarian law, and accountability.

But Also Don’t Miss:

Atrocity Prevention: Exploring New Approaches for Atrocity Prevention: From a “Responsibility to Protect” to a “Right to Assist” Civil Resistance Campaigns
Video from an event at the United States Institute for Peace exploring a new concept, the “right to assist.”

Burma:Myanmar: UN human rights expert calls for targeted sanction
Special Rapporteur for Myanmar reports no change in the situation in Burma and urges the UN Security Council to refer the situation to the ICC.

Ghana: Ghana will give effect to the Rome Statute domestically 
Ghanaian officials announce the country will implement domestic legislation, enacting the Rome Statute.

UN Human Rights Council: Venezuela to Join U.N. Human Rights Council, Despite Track Record
Libya, Mauritania, Sudan, and Venezuela will join the UN Human Rights Council despite their reported and alleged rights abuses domestically.

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Filed under Burma, Event, Human Rights, International Criminal Court, Peace and Security, Prevention, Sudan, Syria, UN, Uncategorized, United States, Women

#R2PWeekly: 7-11 October

This week in focus:

The US Withdrawal from Northern Syria

This week, the United States announced its decision to withdraw its troops from Northern Syria, causing of concern for the Kurdish and other Syrian populations living there. The decision, paved the way for Turkey to launch an offensive against the Kurdish fighters in that region, and motivated the UN Security Council to meet in an emergency closed-door meeting to discuss the situation, at the request of its European members. Many experts warn that the violence will only worsen the humanitarian situation and cause further instability.

The Kurds are an ethnic group with populations living in Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran. The Kurdish Peoples’ Protection Units (YPG) form a large part of the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) and have been key-US allies in fighting the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, commonly referred to as “ISIS”) and are currently guarding the group’s prisoners in the region. Kurdish forces also played a key role in protecting the Yazidi population during the 2014 genocide. Turkey, however, regards the YPG as terrorists due to their links to the outlawed Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK).

Turkey plans to establish a “safe-zone” along the Turkish Syrian border, creating a 20-mile deep area on the Syrian side, Turkish President Recep Erdogan plans to resettle at least a million Syrian refugees from Turkey to this safe zone, by “clearing” the area of Kurdish forces. Kurdish groups fear that this could lead to potential ethnic cleansing and genocide by the Turkish forces, and many human rights groups have cautioned against its creation of the so-called safe zone, citing the massacre in Srebanica in Bosnia-Herzegovina as an example of past areas becoming death traps.

Civilians began fleeing the region upon the US announcement, creating a mass exodus of tens of thousands. Organizations call on parties to respect international law, refraining from the targeting of civilians or engaging in indiscriminate bombing.

More broadly, due to the YPG’s role in guarding prisons holding thousands of ISIL-affiliated actors, the Turkish offensive may mean the violence risks the release of alleged criminals, preventing judicial accountability for atrocities such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide.

syria(photo credit Delil Souleiman/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images)

What to Watch:

Cameroon: Cameroon’s conflict: Will the National Dialogue make any difference? (BBC)
President Biya’s National Dialogue resulted in a series of concessions and proposals, including a special status for Anglophone regions and more regional autonomy. Biya also ordered the  release of 333 separatists fighters and opposition leader Maurice Kamto, who had been arrested for leading protests over election results which he deemed were fraudulent. Biya has been facing increased international pressure due to a repression of dissenting voices and opinions. Many separatist leaders who claimed they would not stop fighting until the establishment of their own independent state shunned the National Dialogue.

South Sudan: Set Meeting on War Crimes Court (Human Rights Watch)
This week, enforcement of the peace accords in South Sudan received attention, with the United States stating that a failure to implement the agreement could result in further sanctions against political leaders in the country. Human Rights Watch also urged the South Sudanese government and the African Union to clarify the way forward for establishing a Hybrid Court. The proposed special judiciary mechanism would aim to prosecute perpetrators of atrocities committed during the war.

But Also Don’t Miss:

Central African Republic: Can the Central African Republic’s peace deal be saved?
ISS Africa analyzes the peace agreement, assessing the progress made in its implementation and the challenges it must overcome.

China: US imposes China visa restrictions over Uighur issue
The US announced visa restrictions on Chinese officials allegedly involved in the persecution of the Uighurs and other Muslim minority groups in Xinjiang.

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#RtoPWeekly: 30 September – 4 October


This Week in Focus:
Plan of Action on Hate Speech and the RtoP

The 74th session of the UN General Assembly has come to a close, but not without several interesting and notable RtoP-related conversations.

One event entitled, “Confronting Hate and Protecting Rights” was held to discuss the UN Strategy and Plan of Action on Hate Speech. The Plan of Action addresses the root causes and drivers of hate as well as the impact on victims. An interactive panel including UN Under-Secretary-General and Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, Mr. Adama Dieng, who spoke of the ability for hate speech to be an indicator of mass atrocities, and that incitement to violence is included under RtoP. Hate speech and violence against minority groups continues to rise, and recognizing it requires accurate monitoring and identification, so the necessary actors can understand which communities are vulnerable, as well as the types of threats and its sources. Panelists spoke of the need for honest reporting on hate speech to increase its visibility, but noted that today’s hate speech is spread through social media such as WhatsApp and Facebook, which is harder to monitor and respond to in a timely manner.

A second event, “A Pathway to a Sustainable Solution to the Rohingya Crisis” was held by the Permanent Mission of Bangladesh, and detailed the plight of the 1.1 million Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. Throughout its participation in various events around UNGA, Bangladesh called on the international community to assist them in protecting the Rohingya people within its borders, and reminding the international community of their obligations under Pillar Two of the RtoP, in helping both Bangladesh and Burma to ensure the safe and voluntary return of refugees. The event also outlined the current challenges in the crises, noting that attempts at repatriation have failed due to the mistrust between the Rohingya and the Burmese government, as well as an unwillingness of the Burmese government to address the structural and legal discrimination against the Rohingya, reinstate land rights, freedom of movement, and the right to citizenship, as well as ensuring accountability.

As part of the event, the Attorney General of the Gambia, Ba Tambadou, announced and detailed plans to file a case against Burma at the International Court of Justice (ICJ). Mr. Tambadou described the events as “textbook acts calculated to destroy a people,” Adding that though genocide is committed by individuals, who should be held accountable, states also have a responsibility to protect and prevent and the Gambia’s case aims to underscore Burma’s failure to do so.

Rohingya  refugees  exhausted  streaming  off  boats  arriving
(Photo via the World Bank)

What to Watch:

Venezuela: UN Creates Independent Investigative Body (Human Rights Watch)
The UN Human Rights Council (HRC) adopted a resolution to create an independent fact-finding body to investigate alleged human rights violations in Venezuela since 2014. The body aims to ensure accountability for those who have committed such crimes, which include extrajudicial executions, enforced disappearances, arbitrary arrests, and torture. The HRC calls upon Venezuelan authorities to cooperate with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), and failure to do so will result in the creation of a full commission of inquiry. The OHCHR body also hopes its work will ensure redress and access to justice for victims.

Bosnia and Herzegovina: The memory of Srebrenica is fading away (Al-Jazeera)
This opinion piece talks of the importance of memorialization in preventing future genocides. As ethnic and religious tensions continue to rise around the world, the author warns of the need for the experiences of survivors to help inform stakeholders’ future decisions. Understanding that what occurred in Srebrenica was not a once-off anomaly, but rather a long process of dehumanization and systematic extermination, is key to future prevention efforts. The danger of the creation of the “other” for political gain used to marginalize religious, ethnic, and minority groups, is evident in the past and current examples of mass atrocities in the world.

But Also Don’t Miss:

Cameroon: Cameroon dialogue starts as Anglophone separatists pull out
Cameroon’s national dialogue began Monday, marking two years since the conflict began, but several separatist leaders pulled out calling for international mediation.

Europe: Mounting Syrian War Crime Cases Raise Hopes For Justice Against A Brutal Regime
Victims of war crimes from Syria continue to file cases in European courts, citing universal jurisdiction.

Philippines: Filming the Philippines’ “War on Drugs”
International Criminal Court Prosecutors requested the submission of the new documentary “On the President’s Orders” to examine alleged government sanctioned crimes in the “war on drugs.”

Weekly Yazidi

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Filed under Burma, Cameroon, Europe, General Assembly, RtoP, Second Pillar, srebrenica, Uncategorized, Weekly Round-Up

#RtoPWeekly: 16-20 September


This week in focus:
RtoP Included on the General Assembly Agenda Once More

On Monday, 16 September, UN Member States voted to adopt “the responsibility to protect and the prevention of genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity” for 74rd session of the UN General Assembly. This included a supplementary item with a vote of 92 States in favor, 15 against, and 27 abstentions.

With this move forward, the UN General Assembly will once again hold a formal debate on the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP), ensuring States have the opportunity to further consider the norm and the work of the UN Special Advisers on Genocide Prevention and RtoP. As the formal debate on RtoP at the end of June showed, discussion the norm in a formal debate allows more time for interventions, increasing the opportunities for increased and more in-depth dialogue on the topic, and also provide an opportunity for formal, on-the-record statements and an exchange of ideas and knowledge on preventing atrocities.

Many states in June showed an appreciate for the concrete and practical examples for prevention-related actions and activities outlined in the Secretary-General’s Report, and welcomed the appointment of the work of the new Special Advisor, Ms. Karen Smith, and appreciated the work of the Office on the Prevention of Genocide and the Responsibility to Protect (the “Joint Office”). The third formal debate on the RtoP will only further allow Member States and the Joint Office to increase opportunities for the exchange of information to better mainstream the RtoP norm. As such, we welcome the continuation of discussion on RtoP as part of the UN General Assembly’s formal agenda once more.

***Due to the UN General Assembly Opening and High-Level Debate, the RtoP Weekly will be on pause and resume publication in October.***

Please take note that our website is currently under construction. If you need assistance in accessing ICRtoP materials, please contact us at

UNGA 74 vote

What to Watch:

Burma: 600,000 Rohingya in Myanmar face ‘serious risk of genocide’: UN (Al-Jazeera)
This week the UN Independent International Fact Finding Mission (FFM) on Myanmar released a report, finding that over 600,000 Rohingya in Myanmar continue to face “serious risk” of genocide. The continued risk is owing to a lack of accountability and called for the situation’s referral to the International Criminal Court, or the creation of a special mechanism, to prosecute Burmese army generals for the arson, rape, and killings, against the Rohingya. In addition to calling for an end to impunity for the atrocities committed, the FFM also notes that Aung San Suu Kyi could also face charges for crimes against humanity owing to her role in the continued ongoing rights violations in the country, failing to address her responsibilities as head of state.

But Also Don’t Miss:

Central African Republic: UN Eases Arms Embargo
Following the peace deal in the Central African Republic, the UN Security Council eased the arms embargo to allow for the proper training of state security forces to protect its populations.

Côte d’Ivoire: ICC Prosecutors appeal acquittal former Ivory Coast president Laurent Gbagbo
ICC Prosecutors, citing legal and procedural errors, appealed Former President Laurent Gbagbo’s acquittal.

Liberia: Liberia President Seeks Legislature’s Advice for War Crimes Court
President George Weah asked the National Legislature to advise him in establishing a war crimes court, as recommended by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

Sub-Saharan Africa: Africa must help end the atrocities in Yemen, and start by ending its involvement
This piece looks at East African nations’ role in the Yemeni Civil War, advocating an obligation to cease operational assistance to help end the conflict and stabilize the security in the region.

Yemen: Yemen: Collective failure, collective responsibility – UN Report 
A new UN Report details possible war crimes in Yemen where attacks on civilian infrastructure, use of blockades, and a lack of accountability have exacerbated the situation.

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#RtoPWeekly 9-13 September


This week in focus:
Member States to Determine UN General Assembly Agenda for the 74th Session

On Monday, 16 September, Member States will convene and decide whether or not  several agenda items of the 73rd session of the UN General Assembly will carry over to the draft agenda of the 74th session, including the Debate on the RtoP. Formally titled, “the responsibility to protect and the prevention of genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity,” the ICRtoP is hopeful for an uncontested rollover, however, states may call for a vote in order to prevent its inclusion.

During the Formal Debate in June, states showed a willingness to continue the dialogue on the RtoP, particularly given the Secretary-General’s report contextualizing lessons learned and offering concrete activities and decisions that could be taken at the national level to mitigate the risks of and prevent atrocity crimes. We’ve summarized the debate in our infographic.

***Please take note that our website is currently under construction. If you need assistance in accessing ICRtoP materials, please contact us at***

What to Watch:

Burundi: Tanzania: Maintain Protection Space for Burundian Refugees (Amnesty)
Following the Commission of Inquiry (COI) report on Burundi’s report last week, several CSOs urged actors at all levels to take the human rights situation into consideration in decision-making processes. Several CSOs called on the Human Rights Council to extend the COI’s mandate ahead of the 2020 elections, and Amnesty International urged the governments of Tanzania and Burundi to ensure that all refugee repatriations were safe and voluntary, owing to their own work on the continued violence and rights repression.

South Sudan: South Sudan parties agree to form interim govt by Nov 12 (Reuters)
Exiled opposition leader, Dr. Riek Machar, returned to South Sudan this week to participate in peace discussions with President Salva Kiir. As the next step in most recent peace agreement, the leaders met and announced that a transitional government would be formed by mid-November.

But Also Don’t Miss:

Bangladesh: Clampdown on Rohingya Refugees
Rights organizations are calling on Bangladesh to restore cell service to refugee camps, investigate the deaths of several civilians and Rohingya politician, as well as end restrictions on their freedom of movement.

Burkina Faso: Burkina Faso threatened with famine caused by terrorism
The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs reports over half a million have been displaced, lack healthcare, and are food insecure due to increased terrorist threats.

Nicaragua: Nicaragua ‘crisis’ still cause for concern amid murder, torture allegations
High Commissioner Michelle Bachelet reminded the Human Rights Council that rights repression remains a concern, urging all parties to engage in peaceful dialogue to resolve the crisis.

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#RtoPWeekly 3-6 September


This week in focus:

Member States Revisit Commitments to Atrocity Prevention
in the Second UNGA debate on RtoP

Hello and welcome back to the RtoP Weekly! A lot happened while we were on break, but we’re looking forward to diving back in and resuming our publication.

On 27 June, the UN General Assembly held its second formal debate on the Responsibility to Protect since 2009. Common themes of the debate included the importance of the Human Rights Council and Treaty Bodies in upholding the RtoP, the importance of accountability mechanisms such as the ICC, IIIM for Syria, among others, and support for UN Plan of Action on Combating Hate Speech. The ICRtoP produced an infographic of the debate, which can be found here.

Ahead of the Formal Debate on the RtoP, the ICRtoP hosted a CSO Roundtable with the UN Special Advisor on the Responsibility to Protect, Ms Karen Smith. This off-the-record event helped to facilitate the channels of communication between civil society and the UN Officeon the Prevention of Genocide and the Responsibility to Protect on the UN Secretary-General’s Annual Report on the RtoP. This year’s Report focused on “Lessons Learned for Prevention,” and looks at state-based approaches to prevention and early action. In this vein, the Report calls upon member states to see actions such as countering hate speech, including women in peace dialogues, and implementing methods of self-review and monitoring as activities that can prevent the future occurrence of atrocities. An ICRtoP summary as well as an infographic on the report are available.

***Please take note that our website is currently under construction. If you need assistance in accessing ICRtoP materials, please contact us at***

What to Watch:

Burundi: CoI Presentation Report (OHCHR)

The UN Human Rights Council’s Commission of Inquiry (CoI) on Burundi released its 2019 report, in which they detail that the presented calm within the country is due to underlying state repression of rights, as seen through the government’s removal of foreign NGOs earlier this year. The Commission used the Framework of Analysis for Atrocity Crimes as part of its research methods, and in its press conference stated, “There is no better early warning than our risk analysis which should be carefully considered, if the often repeated commitments to prevention are to have any meaning.” Ahead of the 2020 elections the CoI’s findings continue to keep Burundi as a state at-risk for atrocities.

But Also Don’t Miss:

Cameroon: Separatist Leaders Appeal Conviction
Separatist leaders filed an appeal against the life sentences handed down to them via Military Tribunal last month, which raised serious concerns over rights violations and due process in the country.

Peacekeeping: Analyzing the Co-Evolution of the Responsibility to Protect and the Protection of Civilians in UN Peace Operations
The RtoP and Peacekeeping are closely linked and complementary – this article explores that normative relationship in practice.

Syria: At Least 98,000 Forcibly Disappeared Persons in Syria Since March 2011
Coalition member, Syrian Network for Human Rights, released several important reports this summer on arbitrary detention and enforced disappearances in Syria.

Syria: Syrians Deported by Lebanon Arrested at Home
Lebanon is forcibly returning Syrians and handing them over to state authorities, where several have been detained arbitrarily.

Venezuela: Joint NGO Q&A: Why a United Nations Inquiry Is Needed for Venezuela
11 National and international NGOs called on the UN Human Rights Council to form a Commission of Inquiry on Venezuela.

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Filed under Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, General Assembly, Peacekeeping, RtoP, Syria, UN, Uncategorized, Weekly Round-Up

The Role of Women and Girls: RtoP and the Development-Humanitarian-Security Nexus

The Role of Women and Girls:
RtoP and the Development-Humanitarian-Security Nexus

Shayna Halliwell

Emerging and protracted crises are causing unprecedented movements of people from their homes and into insecure situations, where they typically experience a lack of access to basic services including education, health, housing and economic opportunities. Development practitioners are now witnessing large-scale funding mechanisms shift their focus to the development-humanitarian-security nexus, with an increased focus on the women and girls who disproportionately experience the effects of forced migration and protracted crises.[1] While the Responsibility to Protect has largely remained a set of principles, not yet enshrined in national or international legal frameworks, many governments are using their international assistance funding to push for development programming that addresses the root causes of conflict to prevent its occurrence. This shift towards the development-humanitarian-security nexus contributes to the normative framework around the Responsibility to Protect by using development funding mechanisms to encourage and assist States in their efforts to prevent and respond to mass atrocities of all kinds; to build their capacities to protect their populations from the effects of this violence; and to assist those already experiencing conflict.

While the RtoP has been affirmed in several Security Council resolutions, and many governments acknowledge the importance of the norm as indicated through its inclusion in the 2005 General Assembly World Summit Outcome Document,[2] the domestication of the RtoP continues to face challenges. While the RtoP is not evoked explicitly by states in their foreign policies, funding frameworks for international assistance have begun to move towards an understanding that development and humanitarian efforts are inextricably linked to international security concerns. International assistance policies that prioritize the intersection between development, humanitarianism, and security serve the function of putting the RtoP’s principles into action, even if they are not implemented in the ways originally anticipated or imagined.

The G7 Charlevoix Declaration (2018) is an example of this shift, as this communique prioritizes educational opportunities for women and girls, particularly in emergency situations or in fragile states, through the signatories’ development assistance systems. This focus on education is explicitly linked to increasing security in these environments, and the G7 pledged to “ensure commitment to gender equality and prioritize improved access to quality education for girls and women in the early stages of humanitarian response and peacebuilding efforts.”[3] This communique was supported by a funding announcement by Canada, the UK, Germany, the European Union, and Japan, alongside the World Bank, to put $3.8 billion entirely towards girls’ education in conflict and crisis situations.[4] Canada, for example, allocated its $400 million contribution to this fund to its Feminist International Assistance Policy.  This policy is based on the recognition by the Canadian government that “supporting gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls is the best way to build a more peaceful, more inclusive and more prosperous world.”[5] As a Project Manager for a large international non-profit that regularly works with the Canadian government, I see firsthand how the ethos behind the Feminist International Assistance Policy now dictates how the Government of Canada decides which projects or interventions to fund. One of the six action areas of the Feminist International Assistance Policy is women’s involvement in peace and security efforts, because “when women are involved in peace and security efforts, solutions are more comprehensive […] This increases community buy-in and offers a better opportunity to address the root causes of conflict.”[6] In the current global context, it is becoming clear that preventing and addressing security issues, particularly atrocities, is absolutely necessary for development projects to be sustainable in any way. The G7 Charlevoix Declaration is a strong indication of this recognition, particularly as it supports women and girls at the nexus of development, humanitarian, and peace and security agendas.

The rates of conflict and displacement of vulnerable groups of people continue to rise,[7] increasing the importance of operationalizing the RtoP. As debates on the RtoP continue, states are putting these principles into action through the ways in which they allocate their funding for development and humanitarian projects. Women and girls are the anchors of these policies that support the implementation of the Responsibility to Protect, because when women and girls are supported and empowered to participate in their communities, they have shown to contribute meaningfully to both conflict prevention and resolution.[8] Large-scale donor investment in women and girls at this development-humanitarian-security nexus simply makes sense for increased and continued peace and security efforts.


Shayna Halliwell is currently Senior Manager for Global Partnerships at Right to Play, a Toronto-based NGO working on child protection, education, and empowerment, where she manages international development projects across sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to her work in development, peace and security, she is interested and writes on indigenous and ethnic minority rights. Ms. Halliwell received her Master’s from Columbia University in New York.

[1] Luck & Bellamy article on ICRtoP blog.
[2] Paragraphs 138-139,[3]

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#RtoP Weekly: 18 – 22 March


This week in focus:
The Burmese Military, Peace, Reconciliation, and Reform

The Burmese military’s role in the ongoing discussions around peace, accountability, and its role in the country’s politics pose an interesting challenge in the way forward. On Monday, 18 March, military officials announced the establishment of an internal court to investigate and prosecute its members for actions against the Rohingya. The stated goal of the court is to “scrutinize and confirm” rights violations committed against the Rohingya, in addition to responding to the various accounts of mass killings, rape, and forced displacement organizations and international bodies such as Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, and the United Nations reported. Many experts, however, still see the measure as one of “bad faith,” and is an attempt to distract and ward off additional international pressure and involvement in internal affairs, with Amnesty International’s Nicholas Bequelin alleging that the idea of the Tatmadaw investigating itself and enacting accountability measures is “dangerous and delusional.”

The military’s involvement in the country’s government in finding a way forward is another piece of the puzzle, proving to be a challenge in peace negotiations and government reform. Composed of various minority and ethnic groups, the peace and reconciliation discussions in Burma must accommodate multiple perspectives and points of view, extending the process. One particular sticking point is the stronghold the military holds in politics and government with a set proportion of representation that allows it to impose its power by being able to reject measures it opposes, as seen this past week in discussions over constitutional reform.

By being able to leverage its power and influence over politics and government, and see impunity for the mass atrocities committed, the Burmese military’s lack of cooperation threatens peace and stability in the country without the UN, its member states, and other influential actors working to address the root causes of conflict and find pathways forward to prevent the recurrence of rights violations against the country’s populations.

(Photo via Burma Link)

Weekly Burma

What to Watch:

Central African Republic:  Just one month in, optimism around CAR’s peace deal is fading (Mail & Guardian)
The latest Central African Republic (CAR) peace agreement is in peril, with fighting between armed groups increasing over the past month. Leaders of the various armed groups see impunity for their actions due to a lack of judicial mechanisms in the country, but also fail to recognize their own roles and responsibilities in the conflict, with many attesting that “if civilians suffered, then we should talk about reconciliation, not justice. Justice will only lead to more problems,” wanting amnesty for those involved. The lack of accountability measures risks the continuance of violence in the conflict. This past week, several signatories withdrew their participation in the peace agreement, resulting in additional dialogues in Addis Ababa this week to save the peace deal.

Philippines: Philippines quits International Criminal Court over inquiry into Duterte’s drug war (France24)
In 2018, the International Criminal Court (ICC) launched a preliminary examination of President Duterte’s drug crackdown and accusations of extrajudicial killings. As of 17 March, the Philippines officially withdrew as a State party to the ICC. In spite of the country’s withdrawal, the Court announced its intention to continue its examination, as it retains jurisdiction on matters already under consideration. Duterte’s spokesperson argued the Philippines never became a State Party to the Rome Statute, and issued a statement attesting that “the tribunal is non-existent and its actions [are] a futile exercise.”

But Also Don’t Miss:

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Radovan Karadžić war crimes sentence increased to life in prison
The Appeals Chamber of the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals upheld the charges of genocide against Radovan Karadzic, sentencing him to life in prison for his role in the Srebrenica massacre.

Cameroon: North West, South West: Women Ready to Contribute to Peace Initiatives
Women from the North-West, South-West Women’s Task Force met with state officials to lobby for inclusive peace dialogues.

Nigeria: ‘Impunity remains widespread at all levels of government in Nigeria’…US human rights report
The US State Department’s Country Report on Human Rights accused the Nigerian government of failing to investigate human rights violations appropriately, including extrajudicial killings, torture, and forced disappearances.

South America: As Venezuela crisis deepens, U.S. sharpens focus on Colombia rebel threat
ELN and FARC rebels from Colombia are exploiting the instability in Venezuela to expand their drug trade and operate with impunity, causing concern over peace and security situation in the region.

Sub-Saharan Africa: The Great Lakes can’t afford more instability
ISS Africa explores the need for a new regional approach to peace and stability in the Great Lakes region in order to prevent any escalation in conflict.

United States: US Threatens International Criminal Court: Visa Bans on ICC Staff
In its latest rebuke of the International Criminal Court, the US announced a travel ban on members of the Court involved in investigations against its citizens.

United States/Somalia: USA/Somalia: Shroud of secrecy around civilian deaths masks possible war crimes
Amnesty International reports increasing drone strikes and resulting civilian deaths possibly amounting to war crimes in Somalia, calling for an impartial investigation into the attacks.

weekly pic 2

Call for Internship Applications
The ICRtoP Secretariat in New York City is now accepting internship applications for Summer 2019. Interested parties can find more information by following the link.

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