#R2P Weekly:7-11 September 2015

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General Assembly Holds 7th Informal Dialogue on RtoP;  ICRtoP & Partners Hold Event Exploring Priorities for Norm Over Next Decade

Tuesday, 9 September 2015, UN Member States gathered to discuss the Secretary-General’s latest report on the Responsibility to Protect, “A Vital and Enduring Commitment: Implementing the Responsibility to Protect.” (Read a summary of the report here.)

Sixty-nine Member States spoke on behalf of 91 governments, with one regional organization (the EU) also participating. Several civil society organizations gave interventions, including the ICRtoP and three of its members (the Global, Asia-Pacific, and Canadian Centres for RtoP). Thirty delegations called for the Security Council to not block resolutions aimed at preventing or responding to atrocity crimes by welcoming either the ACT Code of Conduct or the French and Mexico political declaration. At least 16 states, as well as the Group of Friends of RtoP, showed support for a General Assembly resolution on the ten-year anniversary of the norm, while 26 others welcomed and encouraged the expansion of the R2P Focal Points initiative.

fadiICRtoP Steering Committee Member Fadi Abi Allam of Permanent Peace Movement (Lebanon) delivered a statement on behalf of the ICRtoP. The ICRtoP emphasized the need to further show how RtoP relates to other sectors; urged the Security Council to better assume its RtoP by not blocking resolutions designed to prevent or respond to atrocities; and called for the General Assembly to adopt a resolution on the ten-year anniversary of the norm.

Check back next week for a full summary of the dialogue.

The day after the dialogue, the ICRtoP, the Stanley Foundation, and the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung held an event titled “The Responsibility to Protect at Ten: Perspectives and Opportunities.” The purpose of the event was to focus on opportunities to further mainstream RtoP within other sectors and enhance capacity for addressing new civilian protection challenges.

Dr. Jennifer Welsh, the UN Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect, delivered introductory remarks, in which she reflected on key themes of the General Assembly dialogue and noted areas of opportunity for implementing RtoP in the future.

Other speakers included Erin Mooney, Senior Protection Adviser for the UN and ProCap, who spoke on how protection assistance for the displaced and refugees could be enhanced through implementing RtoP; Alex Hiniker, UN representative of PAX, who provided ideas on how disarmament/arms control initiatives and RtoP could work together to protect populations; and Alex Bellamy, Director of the Asia-Pacific Centre for RtoP, who discussed how measures to counter violent extremism could impact atrocities prevention and response.

The ICRtoP and its co-sponsors will soon produce a full report on the event.


Catch up on developments in…

Burma/Myanmar
Burundi
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Gaza
Iraq
Kenya
Libya

Nigeria
South Sudan
Sudan/Darfur
Syria
Ukraine
Yemen
Other


Burma/Myanmar:

Human Rights Watch urged the government to publicly condemn the Border and Security Affairs Minister of the Mandalay Region Parliamentarian, Dr. Myint Kyu, who spoke out against gay men and transgender women and called on police to arrest them. The Burmese election campaign began on Tuesday and excluded Muslim candidates from the ballot while wiping an estimated 500,000 Rohingya from the voter list.


Burundi:

Patrice Gahungu, the spokesperson for the opposition party Union for Peace and Development (UPD) – Zigamibanga, was assassinated on Monday evening in Bujumbura.The Chairman of the UPD was murdered earlier this year.

Burundi, whose budget is 52 percent donor funded, formally received notifications that aid from European countries, the United States, and various key aid agencies would be suspended. Meanwhile, early in his controversial third term, reports are emerging that President Pierre Nkurunziza is deepening ties with the governments of China and Russia.


Central African Republic:

The UN established a “weapons-free zone” in Bambari to protect civilians from militant groups involved in inter-religious clashes, which have killed more than 10 people in the month of August and have displaced more than 800,000 people during  two years of violence.


Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Ahead of upcoming presidential elections, the United Nations Joint Human Rights Office (UNJHRO) stated that human rights violations by DRC authorities are increasing, with journalists and activists being targeted specifically.


Gaza:

The United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process, Nickolay Mladenov, urged all Palestinian leaders and factions to use the postponement of the Palestine National Council meeting to take constructive steps towards achieving unity. Though the meeting of the Council was scheduled to take place next week in Ramallah, a new date has not yet been set for what will be the first gathering of the Council in nearly 20 years.


Iraq:

After the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) resumed its armed campaign against Turkey by targeting police and military officers and killing more than 100 people in the past 50 days, Turkey deployed ground forces and launched a wave of airstrikes into Iraq to pursue Kurdish militants in the first such action since the 2013 Kurdish-Turkey ceasefire.


Kenya:

The International Criminal Court on Thursday announced public arrest warrants against Paul Gicheru and Philip Kipkoech Bett on accusations of “corruptly influencing witnesses” in the case against Kenyan deputy Prime Minister, William Ruto, for crimes against humanity.


Libya:

The General National Congress (GNC) called for a regional conference to deal with the “migrant” influx crisis. UN Special Representative for Libya, Bernardino Leon, reported that the talks aimed at uniting Libya’s two warring governments are entering the last round and that there is hope of signing a deal by 20 September. Later in the week, Bernardino Leon met ten leaders from each of Libya’s three historic provinces in Cairo, then headed back to Morocco for final talks aimed at naming the prime minister and two deputy prime ministers to head the new Government of National Accord.


Mali:

Malian Special Forces arrested three jihadi suspects after recent attacks against MINUSMA. Despite the signing of a peace deal in June, ongoing conflict in northern Mali and consequent insecurity has increasingly threatened the livelihood of millions. UNOCHA reported that an estimated 3.1 million people are considered to be “food insecure” and roughly 54,000 people are without adequate access to potable water.


Nigeria:

The Nigerian military arrested a number of suspects who were caught allegedly carrying fuel and drugs for Boko Haram in Yobe state. IOM released its 5th Displacement Tracking Matrix, which reported an increase in internally displaced people to over 2.1 million from  the 1.3 million recorded in June. IOM attributed the increase to the intensification of attacks by insurgents in the north.


South Sudan:

The South Sudanese parliament warned that it would reject the recently agreed to Compromise Peace Agreement if it were found to violate national sovereignty; however, when tabled later in the week, the parliament unanimously voted to adopt the deal.


Sudan/Darfur:

ICRtoP member Human Rights Watch released a report stating that the Sudanese government’s Rapid Support Forces (RSF), has gone on two episodes of killings and mass rape of civilians in dozens of Darfur villages since February of last year. HRW urged the government to end RSF atrocities and bring those responsible to justice; the abuses have found to be widespread, varying, and systematic against civilian populations and may constitute crimes against humanity. HRW also underscored that existing peacekeeping forces have not fully carried out their mandate of protecting civilians and have seldom released public reports or comprehensive documentation on abuses against civilians during any RSF counterinsurgency campaigns.

Judges at the ICC asked South African authorities to account for their failure to arrest Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir this summer during his travels to the country.


Syria:

Syrian rebel militants from a coalition of mainly Islamist groups, including the al-Nusra front,seized key Abu al-Duhur airbase in north-western Idlib province after a two year siege.

Amnesty International reported that the Democratic Union Party (PYD)-led autonomous administration in northern Syria has been unlawfully detaining and unfairly trying peaceful critics and civilians believed to be sympathizers or members of alleged terrorist groups.

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon admitted that the UN Security Council is failing Syria due to power divisions preventing action to end the conflict. He said that Russia and China should “look beyond national interest” and stop blocking Security Council action on the conflict in Syria. Additionally, the United Nations Special Envoy on Syria, Staffan de Mistura, called for “a real discussion” to end the conflict in Syria.

After the United States and NATO warned Russia over its involvement in the Syrian conflict, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov confirmed that humanitarian aid flights to Syria also carry military equipment. Separately, Lavrov stated that Russian military advisers have been in Syria, but that their presence has been a part of a longstanding agreement to provide the country with military aid.


Ukraine:

UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, declared that nearly 8,000 people have lost their lives in eastern Ukraine since mid-April 2014, as he released the 11th report by the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine. The report states that the number of civilian casualties more than doubled this past month, in comparison with the previous three months.

The Ukrainian government, though not a member of the International Criminal Court, voluntarily accepted the jurisdiction of the ICC backdated to early 2014 and accused “senior officials of the Russian Federation” and rebel leaders of committing atrocities during the annexation of Crimea and fighting in eastern Ukraine.


Yemen:

Around 1,000 soldiers from Qatar’s Armed Forces, more than 200 armored vehicles, and 30 Apache combat helicopters deployed to Yemen as part of the Saudi-led coalition’s fight against Houthi rebels. War planes from the coalition bombed the capital of Sanaa in the largest attack on the city in over five months.

UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, Stephen O’Brien, released an emergency fund of $15 million to help alleviate the “almost incomprehensible” scale of human suffering in Yemen, where four out of five people are lacking the most basic survival items such as clean water, food, fuel and medicines. In addition, the Secretary-General and members of the Security Council strongly condemned the suicide attack of September 2 against a mosque in the northern Jarraf district of Sana’a in Yemen that killed 30 and injured 100.


What else is new?

In a new analysis for the International Peace Institute’s Global Observatory, the Asia Pacific Center for the R2P’s Alex Bellamy highlighted that “one of the most straightforward and effective measures that could be adopted in fulfillment of RtoP is the provision of safe passage and asylum to those fleeing” the Syrian conflict.

ICRtoP member International Crisis Group released a report detailing how the rise of Christian and Muslim fundamentalist movements in Cameroon is rapidly changing the religious landscape and paving the way for religious intolerance.

International Crisis Group also issued a conflict alert for Nepal, stating that  protests against a draft constitution have left 23 dead and hundreds injured in Nepal in two weeks.

War crimes prosecutors in Serbia charged eight people over the 1995 Srebrenica massacre in Bosnia. This is the first time that a court in Serbia has charged anyone over the massacre of 8,000 Bosnian Muslim men and boys by Bosnian-Serb forces.


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